Main Article Content
This research was aimed to study phytochemical screening test, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activities, cytotoxicity and antiviral (HSV-1) activity of the extracts of O. elatior fruit. The fruit was harvested in December 2015. After separation peeled fruit and flesh from juice, dried and ground samples were successively extracted with ethanol. Both extracts were studied 8 standard preliminary phytochemical tests, including alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinone glycosides, tannins, coumarins, and steroids. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested by DPPH assay, and vitamin C was a positive control. The antimicrobial activities were tested by agar diffusion method, against ten human pathogenic microorganisms, including B. subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, S. saprophyticus, M. luteus, S. marcescens, E. aerogenes, S. typhimurium, P. vulgaris and P. aeruginosa, and ethanol was a negative control. Cytotoxicity tests were performed against primate cell line (Vero cell) and anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 by green fluorescent protein (GFP) method, with standards, ellipticine and acyclovir as positive controls, respectively. The results showed that; steroids, deoxy sugars and tannins were found in both extracts. Also they showed the low antioxidant activity with DPPH assay. The IC50±SD of peeled fruit extract was 0.82±33.4 µg/ml and vitamin C was the standard, showed IC50±SD of 2.290±0.30 µg/ml. On the other hand, peel extract inhibited human pathogenic antimicrobial activity against 10 organisms. The peel fruit extract displayed % inhibition higher than that of flesh fruit extract. The highest antimicrobial activities of peel fruit extract were against S. saprophyticus at the minimum concentration of 0.24±0.12 mg/ml. This extract showed the minimum inhibitory concentration against other microorganisms in range of 1.00-6.00 mg/ml. The highest antimicrobial activities of flesh fruit extract were found to against S. saprophyticus at the minimum concentration of 0.75±0.00 mg/ml. This extract showed the minimum concentration inhibited against other microorganisms in range of 1.50-6.00 mg/ml. Both extracts showed no activities against Vero cell line and HSV-1. Notably, standard drugs, ellipticine and acyclovir showed IC50 of 0.75 and 4.29 µg/ml for cytotoxicity and anti-HSV tests, respectively.
Keywords: Opuntia elatior, biological activities, phytochemicals
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