Main Article Content
Processed seafood industries produce a large amount of waste, especially fish bones, which the salmon bone is one of them. This research aims to produce fish bone powder from salmon for improving the texture and nutritional value of fish ball products. The optimum condition for preparing fish bone was performed from two salmon species, including Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Heating under pressure by pressure cooker at different temperatures (120, 130, and 140 ºC) and time (30, 60, and 90 minutes) was investigated. Temperature and time did not affect the firmness of Pink salmon fish bone (p > 0.05), but those involved in the Atlantic salmon fish bone. Heating at 140 ºC for 60 minutes resulted in low firmness and a moderate amount of protein. Therefore, this condition was selected to study appropriate drying conditions. The drying temperature was categorized into three different levels, which were 50, 60, and 70 ºC, and the drying times were 90, 120, and 150 minutes. Drying at 70 ºC resulted in the highest yield and whiteness. The lowest water activity was obtained from drying at 120 and 150 minutes, and these two conditions had no significant difference (p > 0.05). Therefore, drying at 70 ºC for 120 minutes was selected. The optimum amount of fish bone powder in fish ball production from threadfin bream (Nemipterus hexodon) surimi was studied at different levels (0, 1, 3, and 5 % of surimi weight). It was found that the gel strength of fish ball increased as fish bone increased, while expressible water decreased as fish bone increased up to 3 %. Hardness and chewiness were increased, while cohesiveness was reduced compared with those of the control. The fish ball with 3 % fish bone powder showed the highest sensory scores in taste and overall liking.
Office of Industrial Economics, 2019, Statistic in Industries, Available Source: https://indexes.oie.go.th/industrialStatistics1.aspx, October 22, 2020. (in Thai)
Ramirez, A., 2007, Salmon By-product Protein, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nation, Rome.
Benjakul, S. and Karnjanapratum, S., 2018, Characteristics and nutritional value of whole wheat cracker fortified with tuna bone bio-calcium powder, Food Chem. 259: 181-187.
Yin, T. and Park, J.W., 2014, Effects of nano-scaled fish bone on the gelation properties of Alaska Pollock surimi, Food Chem. 50: 463-468.
Yin, T., Reed, Z.H. and Park, J.W., 2014, Gelling properties of surimi as affected by the particles size of fish bone, LWT Food Sci. Technol. 58: 412-416.
Niludomsak, S., 2001, Effect of Ingredients on Texture of Fishball, Master Thesis, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok. (in Thai)
AOAC, 1995, Official Methods of Analysis, 16th Ed., The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Phisutthigoson, S., Jirapeatsayasuk, P., and Sompongse, W., 2018, Production of fish ball with konjac glucomannan gel and herbs, J. Sci. Technol. 26(2): 224-235. (in Thai)
Jarunatvilat, A., 2000, Utilization of Skipjack Tuna Katsuwonus pelamis Bone as Calcium Source in Snacks, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University. (in Thai)
Suwannaporn, P., 2018, Physical Modifica tion of Starch and Its Applications in Foods, Pornsap Publishing, Bangkok. (in Thai)