Technology and Policy of Converting Waste into Energy: A Case Study of Thailand, the UK and the United States

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Jaruwan Wongthanate
Titika Maneekul


From the constantly increasing volumes of waste problem situation and the amount of the waste that is not proper disposal and cannot be utilized for benefit in the high volume, waste-toenergy is an interesting alternative to bring non-valuable wastes for the maximum benefit and waste reduction before dumping into landfills that affect an environment in the future. Furthermore, the
waste-to-energy is one of the most efficient and sustainable waste management and can be a circular economy system. This review article focuses on the three types of waste-to-energy technologies; thermal technology, biochemical technology, and physical technology, including a comparison of the benefits and drawbacks of each technology and a study of policies and guidelines in waste-to-energy management of three countries; Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States for leading to waste-to-energy efficiency. Thermal technology is the most crucial technology for converting waste in three countries, and waste-to-energy is vital for waste management in each country. Policies of three countries have explicitly supported the waste into energy that there is a trend towards increasing and continuing technology development. Thailand should promote a section of policy development in the concept like the renewable obligation (RO) that encourages a generation of renewable energy to increase financial incentives for the amount of waste reduction before dumping into landfill and to find the energy that can replace fossil fuel as well as increasing efficiency of CO2 reduction; 1 kg of waste reduction will be able to reduce 6.3 kgCO2e per year. Moreover, it positively impacts on economic, social, and environmental development.


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