Removal of Haloacetic Acid in Swimming Pool by Activated Carbon from Dialium cochinchinensis shell

Main Article Content

Memoon Sattar
Pannawit Densumit
Fareeda Hayeeye


Chlorination is commonly used for disinfection in swimming pools. However, residues of haloacetic acid (HAAs), classified as carcinogenic, are formed. Therefore, the aim of this research is the removal of HAAs by adsorption on activated carbon from Dialium cochinchinensis shell (DSAC) which were carbonized and activated with ZnCl2 at 450 °C. The DSAC was characterized in terms of morphology (SEM), specific surface area, elemental composition and point of zero charge (pHpzc). Additionally, the initial concentration of synthetic HAAs (25 - 300 Cambria g L-1) and the amount of DSAC (0.1 - 0.6 g) and contact time were investigated. The results indicate that the kinetic of adsorption is best fit by pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm fits well, with a maximum monolayer adsorption value of 312.50 μg g-1. Furthermore, DSAC could remove up to 95.45% of HAAs from swimming pool water, making it an effective alternative adsorbent.

Article Details

Medical Sciences


Huma, I., Ilyas, M. and Jan Peter, V.H, 2018, Disinfection methods for swimming pool water: byproduct formation and control, Water. 10(6): 1 - 29.

Xiao, F., Zhang, X., Zhai, H., Lo, I.M., Tipoe, G.L., Yang, M., Pan, Y. and Chen, G., 2012, New halogenated disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water and their permeability across skin. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46: 7112–7119.

Panyakapo, M., Soontornchai, S. and Paopuree, P., 2008, Cancer risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and swimming pool water. J. Environ. Sci. 20(3): 372 - 378.

Lu, J., Zhang, T., Ma, J. and Chen, Z., 2009, Evaluation of disinfection by-products formation during chlorination and chloramination of dissolved natural organic matter fractions isolated from a filtered river water. J Hazard Mater. 162(1): 140-145.

Nikolaou, A., Lekkas, T. and Golfinopoulos, S., 2004, Kinetics of the formation and decomposition of chlorination by-products in surface waters. Chem. Eng. J. 100(1-3): 139-148.

Pimjai, K., 2015, Health risk assessment from exposure to haloacetic acids (HAAs) in swimming pool, Master of Science in Environmental Management Thesis, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, 185 p. (in Thai)

Tang, H.L. and Xie, Y.F., 2016, Biologically active carbon filtration for haloacetic acid removal from swimming pool water. Sci. Total Environ. 541: 58–64.

Ratasuk, C., Kositanont, C., Ratanatamskul, C., 2008, Removal of haloacetic acids by ozone and biologically active carbon. ScienceAsia 34: 293–298.

Chuang, Y.H., Wang G.S. and Tung, H.H., 2011, Chlorine residuals and haloacetic acid reduction in rapid sand filtration. Chemosphere. 85(7): 1146-1153.

Metcalfe, D., Rockey, C., Jefferson, B., Judd, S. and Jarvis, P., 2015, Removal of disinfection by-product precursors by coagulation and an innovative suspended ion exchange process. Water Researeh. 87: 20-28.

Guay, C., Rodriguez, M. and Sérodes, J., 2005, Using ozonation and chloramination to reduce the formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in drinking water. Desalination. 176(1-3): 229-240.

Babi, K.G., Koumenides, K.M., Nikolaou, A.D., Makri, C.A., Tzoumerkas, F.K. and Lekkas, T.D., 2007, Pilot study of the removal of THMs, HAAs and DOC from drinking water by GAC adsorption. Desalination. 210(1-3): 215-224.

Phongthon, S., Prapat, P. and Sudjit, K., 2020, Removal of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water supply by coagulation-flocculation and activated carbon adsorption processes. Eng. J. Res. Devel. 31(4): 173 – 183.

Ghomshe, S. T., Mousavi, S., Soltanieh, M. and Kordi, A. S., 2011, Batch and column study of haloacetic acids adsorption onto granular activated carbon. Scientific Research and Essays. 6(16): 3553-3560.

Barbot, E. and Moulin, P., 2008, Swimming pool water treatment by ultrafiltration–adsorption process. J. Mem. Sci. 314: 50–57.

Chalatip, R., Chawalit, R. and Nopawan, R., 2009, Removal of haloacetic acids by nanofiltration. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 21(1): 96-100.

Chaiyot, T., 2011, Adsorption process. Nakhon Ratchasima: University Press Suranaree Technology (in thai).

Fareeda, H. and Memoon, S., 2020, Removal of crystal violet in aqueous solution by activated carbon from the pericarp of rubber fruit and bagasse: kinetics, thermodynamics and adsorption studies. Desalination and Water Treatment, 202: 420–434.

Mohamed, K.A., Mojdeh, O. and Wan Daud, W. M., 2010, Hexavalent chromium adsorption on impregnated palm shell activated carbon with polyethyleneimine. Bio.Tech. 101: 5098–5103.

Brunauer, S., Skalny J. and Bodor, E.E., 1969, Adsorption on nonporous solids. J. Colloid Inter. Sci. 30: 546–552.

Fareeda, H. Aeesoh, B. and Memoon, S., 2022, Adsorption efficiency of batik dye by modified Dialium cochinchinense activated carbon beads: kinetics and thermodynamics. Des. Water Treat. 269: 200–211.

US.EPA., 1995, Determination of haloacetic acids and dalapon in drinking water by liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and gas choromatography with electron capture detection Method 552.2, Rev. 1.0. Washington DC.

Xie, Yuefeng., 2001, Analyzing haloacetic acids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Water Res. 35(6): 1599-1602.

Phongthon S., Prapat P. and Sudjit, K., 2020, Removal of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water supply by coagulation-flocculation and activated carbon adsorption process. Eng. J. Res. Devel. 31(4): 173-183.

Lagergren, S.,1898, Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens. Handlingar Band. 24: 1 - 39.

Ho, Y.S. and McKay, G., 1999, Pseudo-second-order model for sorption processes. Process Biochem. 34: 451–465.

Langmuir, I., 1916, The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. part i. solids. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 38: 2221 - 2295.

Freundlich, H., 1907, Ueber Kolloidfällung und Adsorption. Zeitschrift für Chemie and Industrie der Kolloide. 1: 321-331.

Chong L. and Ting Y., 2005, Characteristics of activated carbon prepared from pistachio-nut shell by zinc chloride activation under nitrogen and vacuum conditions. J. Colloid Inter. Sci. 15. 290(2): 505-513.

Kuila U., and Prasad M., 2013, Specific surface area and pore-size distribution in clays and Shales. Geophysical Prospecting, 62(2): 341-362.

Tay T., Ucar S. and Karagöz S., 2009, Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from waste biomass. J. Hazard. Mater. 165(1–3) : 481-485.