Drying of Mint and Basil Leaves for The Herbal Blended Beverage Development
Keywords:Basil leaves, Mint leaves, Tray drying, Herbal blended beverage
The objective of this study was to develop the herbal blended beverage made with 4 herbs: mint leaves, basil leaves, fennel seed and licorice root. Tray drying method was used for drying mint leaves and basil leaves at two different temperatures: 50ºC and 55ºC. Product quality was determined by measuring antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical method and total phenolic compound method. Drying kinetic, color and water activity were also analyzed. Results showed that drying mint leaves and basil leaves at 55ºC was better than drying at 50ºC. Sensory analysis was conducted to find appropriate proportion of ingredients. Herbal blended beverage with 40% of dried mint, 10% of dried basil, 30% of dried licorice root, and 20% of fennel seed was most accepted for all sensory attribute: appearance, color, odor, flavor, after taste, and overall.
AOAC. 1999. Official methods of analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington.
Ayensu, A. 1997. Dehydration of food crops using a solar dryer with convective heat flow. Solar Energy. 59:121–126.
Babu, A.K., Kumaresan, G., Raj, V.A.A., and Velraj, R. 2018. Review of leaf drying: Mechanism and influencing parameters, drying methods, nutrient preservation, and mathematical model. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 90:536–556.
Cascant, M.M., Sisouane, M., Tahiri, S., EL Krati, M., Cervera, M.L., Garrigues, S., and De la Guardia, M. 2016. Determination of total phenolic compounds in compost by infrared spectroscopy. Talanta. 153:360–365.
Chan, E.W.C., Kong, L.Q., Yee, K.Y., Chua, W.Y., and Loo, T.Y. 2012. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of some fresh and dried Labiatae herbs. Free Radicals and Antioxidants. 2(3):20–27.
Chan, E.W.C., Lye, P.Y., Eng, S.Y., and Tan, Y.P. 2013. Antioxidant properties of herbs with enhancement effects of drying treatments: A synopsis. Free Radicals and Antioxidants. 3(1):2–6.
Diamante, L.M., and Munro, P.A. 1993. Mathematical modelling of the thin layer solar drying of sweet potato slices. Solar Energy. 51(4):271–276.
Doymaz, I. 2006. Thin-layer drying behavior of mint leaves. Journal of Food Engineering. 74:370–375.
Doymaz, I., Tugrul, N., and Pala, M. 2006. Drying characteristics of dill and parsley leaves. Journal of Food Engineering. 77:559–565.
Eltawil, M.A., Azam, M.M., Alghannam, A.O. 2018. Energy analysis of hybrid solar tunnel dryer with PV system and solar collector for drying mint (MenthaViridis). Journal of Cleaner Production. 181:352–364.
Gulcimen, F., Karakaya, H., and Durmus, A. (2016). Drying of sweet bail with soalr air collecots. Renewable Energy. 93:77–86.
Harbourne, N., Marete, E., Jacquier, J.C., and O'Riordan, D. 2009. Effect of drying methods on the phenolic constituents of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) and willow (Salix alba). LWT – Food Science and Technology. 42(9):1468–1473.
Henderson, S.M., and Pabis, S. 1961. Grain drying theory I: Temperature effect on drying coeffcient. Journal of Agricultural Research Engineering. 6:169–174.
Horovitz, B. (2015, January 15). Younger folks want healthier food - and will pay for it. USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2015/01/19/healthy-food-nielsen-global-health--wellness-study/22000167/
Karathanos, V.T. 1999. Determination of water content of dried fruits by drying kinetics. Journal of Food Engineering. 39:337–344.
Lima-Correa, R.A.B., Andrade, M.S., Da Silva, M.F.G.F., and Freire, J.T., and Ferreira, M.C. 2017. Thin-layer and vibrofluidized drying of basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.): analysis of drying homogeneity and influence of drying conditions on the composition of essential oil and leaf colour. Journal of Applied Research on Medicine and Aromatic Plants, 7. 54–63.
NIH (2016, December 1). Licorice Root. Retrieved from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/licoriceroot
Park, K.J., Vohnikova, Z., Brod, F.P.R. 2002. Evaluation of drying parameters and desorption isotherms of garden mint leaves (Mentha crispa L.) Journal of Food Engineering. 51:193–199.
Rabeta, M.S. and Vithyia, M. 2013. Effect of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of Vitex negundo Linn. Tea. International Food Research Journal. 20(6):3171–3176.
Samoticha, J., Wojdylo, A., and Lech. K. 2016. The influence of different the drying methods on chemical composition and antioxidant activity in chokeberries. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 66:484–489.
Tai, A., Iomori, A., and Ito, H. 2017. Structural evidence for the DPPH radical-scavenging mechanism of 2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry. 25(20):5303–5310.
Therdthai, N. and Zhou, W. 2009. Characterization of microwave vacuum drying and hot air drying of mint leaves (Mentha cordifolia ipiz ex Fresen). Journal of Food Engineering. 91:482–489.
Torki-Harchegani, M., Ghanbarian, D., Pirbalouti, A. G., and Sadeghi S. 2016. Dehydration behaviour, mathematical modelling, energy efficiency and essential oil yield of peppermint leaves undergoing microwave and hot air treatments. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 58:407–418.
White, G.M., Ross, I.J., Ponelert, R. 1981. Fully exposed drying of popcorn. Transaction of the ASAE, 24. 466–468.
Yagcioglu, A., Degirmencioglu, A., and Cagatay, F. (Eds.). 1999. Drying characteristic of laurel leaves under different conditions. Bascetincelik Proceedings of the 7th international congress on agricultural mechanization and energy. 565–569.