Influence of Germination on Mineral Bioavailability and Phytic Acid Content in Rice
Keywords:Bioavailability, Germinated rice, Phytic acid, Mineral, Antioxidant
The effect of germination on phytase activity, phytic acid content, antioxidant activity, and bioavailability of minerals in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was investigated. Paddy rice was germinated for 0,1,2,3 and 4 days at room temperature (28±2°C) and the rice husks, rice bran, brown rice, white rice, rootlets, and shoots were individually separated and examined. Phytase activity of all rice fractions increased significantly after germination, and was highest in brown rice followed by rice bran after four days of germination. The phytic acid content of germinated rice and rice bran decreased from 39.24–14.18 mg/g and 63.35–46.34 mg/g, being 63.9% and 26.9% reductions compared to the initial phytic acid content, respectively. Only a small amount of phytic acid was detected in the rootlets and shoots, while it was not detected in the husks. The germination of the rice significantly increased the phosphorus content and the bioavailability of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P). There was no effect on the content of Ca, Fe, Mg (rice bran fraction), and antioxidant activity of germinated rice extract. Results suggest that germination is an effective process to reduce the level of phytic acid and to improve the quality of rice grains for enhanced the bioavailability of minerals.
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