Physiochemical, Antioxidant Activities and Anthocyanin of Riceberry Rice from Different Locations in Thailand
Keywords:Riceberry rice, Physical, Chemical, Antioxidant
The objective of this study was to investigate the physiochemical qualities, antioxidant activities and anthocyanin content of Riceberry rice for the selected locations in Thailand. The study on the Riceberry rice was conducted from the five locations: Chiang Mai, Lampang, Phetchabun, Sing Buri, and Surin provinces; they were evaluated on the qualities such as length, width and color values (L*, a*, and b*), proximate composition, total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging activity assay, ABTS radical scavenging activity assay and anthocyanin content. The results indicated that the difference in areas were significantly different of L* a* and b* values (p<0.05). The percentage of moisture content was in the range of 9.69 to 11.59. The fat contents were in the range of 2.46% to 3.35%. The percentage of protein, ash, fiber and carbohydrate contents was in the scope of 7.84–9.25, 9.69–11.59, 1.82–2.40 and 73.45–76.50, respectively. The quantitative composition of total phenolic compound, % scavenging ability of DPPH, % scavenging ability of ABTS, anthocyanin content of Riceberry rice in different areas all had a significant difference (p<0.05). As for total phenolic compound and total anthocyanin the content was between 179.16–327.61 mgGAE/100g and 24.69–272.76 mg/100g of rice, respectively. The percentage scavenging ability of DPPH and percentage scavenging ability of ABTS was in the range of 39.25 to 71.54 and 27.29 to 43.03, respectively.
Castañeda-Ovando, A.M.d.L.P.-H., Elena Páez-Hernández, Ma., and Rodríguez, C.A.G.-V. José A. 2009. Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review. Food Chemistry. 113:859–871.
Cheng, G., He, Y.N., Yue, T.X., Wang, J, Zhang, Z.W. 2014. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. Molecules. 19(9):13683–703.
Chuaykarn, N., Laohakunjit, N., Suttisansanee, U., Hudthagosol, C. and Somboonpanyakul, P. 2013. Effect of riceberry flour on physico-chemical and sensory properties of low fat ice cream. Agricultural Science Journal. 44(2)(Suppl.):589–592.
Floegel, A., Dae-Ok, K., Sang-Jin, C., Sung, I. K. and Ock, K. C. 2011. Comparison of ABTS/DPPH assays to measure antioxidant capacity in popular antioxidant-rich US foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 24:1043–1048.
Jing, L. and Yuan, J. 2012. Research progress in effects of different altitude on rice yield and quality in China. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2(7):340–344.
Jittorntrum, B., Chunhabundit, R., Kongkachuichai, R.Srisala, S. and Visetpanit, Y. 2009. Cytoprotective and cytotoxic effects of rice bran extracts on H2O2- induced oxidative damage in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Thai Journal of Toxicology 24(2):92–100.
Kanchana, S., Bharathi, S.L, Ilamaran, M., and Singaravadive,l K. 2012. Physical quality of selected rice varieties. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 8(5):468–472.
Kongkachuichai, R., Prangthip, P., Surasiang, R., Posuwan, J., Charoensiri, R., Kettawan, A., Vanavichit, A., 2013. Effect of riceberry oil (deep purple oil; Oryza sativaindica) supplementation on hyperglycemia and change in lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats fed a high fat diet. International Food Research Journal.
Kushwaha, U.K.S., 2016. Black rice anthocyanin content increases with increase in altitude of its plantation. Advances in Plants and Agriculture Research. 5(1).00170.
Laokuldilok, T., Charles, F. S., Sakda, J., and Vanna, T. 2011. Antioxidants and antioxidant activity of several pigmented rice brans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
Leardkamolkarn, V., Thongthep, W., Suttiarporn, P., Kongkachuichai, R., Wongpornchai, S., and Wanavijitr, A. 2011. Chemopreventive properties of the bran extracted from a newly-developed Thai rice: The Riceberry. Food Chemistry. 125:978–985.
Miguel, M. G.2011. Anthocyanins: Antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 01(06):07–15.
Mira, N.V.M., I.L. de Massaretto, C.S.C.I., Pascual, U.M. Lanfer-Marquez. 2009. Comparative Study of phenolic compounds in different Brazilian rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22:405–409.
Prangthip, P., Surasiang, R., Charoensiri, R., Leardkamolkarn, V., Komindr, S., Yamborisut, U., Vanavichitd, A., Kongkachuichaia, R., 2013. Amelioration of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation in steptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high fat diet by Riceberry supplement. J. Funct. Food. 5, 195–203.
Rattanachaisit, P., and Kongkiattikajorn, J. 2015. Antioxidative activities of bran extracts from pigmented rice cultivars. The International Conference on Herbal and Traditional Medicine, 11: 33-42.
Re, R., Pellegrini N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M., and Rice-Evans, C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 26:1231–1237.
Shao, Y., Zhanqiang, H., Yonghong Y., Renxiang, M., Zhiwei, Z. and Trust B. 2018. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, minerals and their correlations in non-pigmented, red, and black rice. Food Chemistry. 239:733–741.
Sirichokworrakit, S., Phetkhut, J. and Khommoon, A. 2015. Effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with riceberry flour on quality of noodles. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 197(25):1006–1012.
Sompong, R., Siebenhandl-Ehn, S., Linsberger-Martin, G. and Berghofer, E. 2011. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food Chemistry. 124:132–140.
Somthawil, S. and Sriwattana, S. 2016. Comparing the sensory characteristics, physical properties, and consumer acceptability of purple rice cultivars. Food and Applied Bioscience Journal. 4(2):52–63.
Su, Z., Liao, X., Zhao, G., Shi, R., Jiang, C., Zou, Q. and Dai, L.2008. Analysis of grain qualities in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different altitudes in highland region. Ecology and Environment. 17:1157–1162.
Wang, L.S. and Stoner, G.D. 2008. Anthocyanins and their roles in cancer prevention. Cancer Letters 269: 281–290.
Wojdylo, A., Oszmianski, J., and Czemerys, R. 2007. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chemistry. 105:940–949.
Zhang, M., Guo, B., Zhange, R., Chi. J., We, Z., XU, A., Zhange, Y. and Tang, X. 2006. Separation, Purification and identification of antioxidant compositions in black rice. Agricultural Sciences in China 5(6):431–440.
Zhu, Z., Kim, K., Yuan, P., Zhao, G., Su, Z., Shi, R., Zou, Q., Yang, S. and Dai, L.2010. RVA profile properties for cold tolerant and sensitive cultivars of Japonica rice at different altitudes in highland region. Chinese Journal of Rice Science. 24:151–156.