Chemical Properties of Three Selected Thai Rice and Texture Profiling of Cooked KumDoiSaket Rice
Keywords:Thai Rice, Antioxidants, Sensory descriptive, Texture profile, Physicochemical
This research aimed to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of Thai rices (Hom-Mali105, Hom-Nin and KumDoiSaket) and focused on texture profiling. Thereafter, the effects of selected cooked rice as being influenced by the different water to rice ratios (1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2 and 1:2.5) were evaluated.
The chemical compositions of Thai rice samples were significantly different. Moreover, KumDoiSaket rice was the highest contents of fat and protein. In addition, KumDoiSaket rice showed the highest contents of antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTH radical scavenging activity, FRAP value), total phenolic compounds and total anthocyanin indicated that the strongest activities of KumDoiSaket rice selected for further studying. The rice: water ratio of KumDoiSaket rice was assessed by measuring color, texture profile analysis (TPA), scanning electron micrographic (SEM) and sensory evaluation as descriptive analysis and sensory acceptance. The rice: water ratio had an effect on cooking characteristics of all various ratios. When increasing the rice: water ratio, L* value significantly decreased while a* and b* values significantly increased. The textural profile analysis (TPA) showed that the rice: water ratio of 1.2 and 1:2.5 significantly lower on the hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess and resilience. Using scanning electron microscopy, the microstructure revealed surface and crossed section was difference among the cooked rice of different rice to water ratio. Twelve trained panelists received three months of training in terminology development, reference selection, intensity scaling (a 150 millimeter line scale) and warm-up sample before conducting generic descriptive analysis. The sensory descriptive results identified eight attributes of texture profiles of cooked KumDoiSaket rice; adhesiveness to lips, hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess, roughness of mass and tooth pack. The results showed that the intensity ratings were significantly different for the all attributes of cooked KumDoiSaket rice at various rice-water ratios. The sensory acceptance test of cooked KumDoiSaket rice was neither like nor dislike, like slightly, with an average score of 5.2–6.2 on the 9-point hedonic scale. This study could help the consumer and food industry for the selection of the suitable ratio of rice to water 1:1.5 and 1:2 in rice cooking provided the highest score of overall liking on consumer preference.
Boo, H.-O., Heo, B.-G. and Gorinstein, S. 2012. Analyticalmethods for enzyme and DPPH radical scavenging activities of natural pigments from some plants. Food Analyst. 5:1354–1361.
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E. and Berset, C. 1995. Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-FOOD Science and Technology, 8, 25–30.
Chatthonpisut, R.J., Schwartz, S., and Yongsawatdigul, J. 2015. Antioxidant activities and antiproliferative activity of Thai purper rice cooked by various methods on human colon cancer cells. Food chemistry. 188:99–105.
Daiponmak, W., Senakun, C., and Siriamornpun, S. 2014. Antiglycation capacity and antioxidant activities of different pigmented Thai rice. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 49:1805–1810.
Finocchiaro, F., Ferrari, B., and Gianinetti, A. 2010. A study of biodiversity of flavonoid content in the rice caryopsis evidencing simultaneous accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in a black-grained genotype. Journal of Cereal Science. 51:28–34.
Gunaratne, A., Bentota, A., Cai, Y.Z., Collado, L., and Corke, H. 2011. Functional, digestibility, and antioxidant properties of brown and polished rice flour from traditional and new-improved varieties grown in Sri Lanka. Starch. 63:485–492.
Hu, C., Zawistowski, J., Ling, W. and Kitts, D.D. 2003. Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) Pigmented Fraction Suppresses both Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in Chemical and Biological Model Systems. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 51:5271–5277.
Kiatthanapaiboon, S., Oupadissakoon, C. and Suwansichon, T. 2008. Sensory and Instrumental Texture Characteristics of Thai Rices. Proceedings of 46th Kasetsart University Annual Conference: Agro-Industry, Bangkok, Thailand (in Thai).
Kjeldahl, J. 1883. A new method for the determination of nitrogen in organic matter. Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie. 22:366.
Limpawattana, M. 2007. An Integrated Approach to Sensory Analysis of Rice Flavor. University of GeorGia. USA.
Meilgaard, M., Civille, G.V., and Carr, B.T. 1991. Sensory Evaluation Techniques. 2nd ed. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.
Meullenet, J.C., Gross J., Marks, B.P., and Daniels, M. 1998. Sensory Descriptive Texture Analyses of Cooked Rice and Its Correlation to Instrumental Parameters Using an Extrusion Cell. Cereal Chem. 75(5):714–720.
Miao, W., Wang, L., Xu, X., and Pan, S. 2016. Evaluation of cooked rice texture using a novel sampling technique. Measurement. 89:21–27.
Ogawa, Y., Glenn, G.M., Orts, W.J., and Wood, D.F. 2003. Histological structures of cooked rice grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51(24):7019–7023.
Pengkumsri, N., Chaiyasut, C., Saenjum, C., Surirun, S., Peerajan, S., Suwannarert, P., Sirisattha, S., and Sivamaruthi, B.S. 2015. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand. Food Science and Technology. 35(2):331–338.
Phillipa, K., Bremer, P., Silcock, P., Hamid, N., Delahunty, C., Barker, M. and Kissick, J. 2009. Effect of gender, diet and storage time on the physical properties and sensory of sea urchin (Evechinus Chloroticus) gonads. Aquaculture. 288(3–4):205–215.
Reddy, C.K., Kimmi, L., and Haripriya, S. 2016. Variety difference in molecular structure, functional properties, phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity of pigmented rice. Food measure. 10:605–613.
Sompong, R., Siebenhandl-Ehn, S., Linsberger-Martin, G., and Berghofer E. 2011. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food chemistry. 124:132–140.
Sumret, C., Siriwong, N. and Riebroy, S. 2012. Textural Properties and Acceptability of Cooked Black Glutinous Rice as Affected by Soaking and Cooking Methods. Proceedings of 50th Kasetsart University Annual Conference: Agricultural Extension and Home Economics, Plants, Bangkok, Thailand (in Thai).
Szczesniak, A. S. 1968. Correlations between objective and sensory texture measurements. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 22:981–985.
Szczesniak, A.S. 1987. Correlating sensory with instrumental texture measurements—an overview of recent developments. Journal of Texture Study. 18:1–15.
Vareeporn, P., Suthaya, P., Surat, N. and Chiyawat, C. 2011. Effects of germinating conditions on antioxidant properties, total polyphenol and phytate contents in quick-cooking husked Hom Dam Sukhothai 2 rice. Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry. 4(05):297–305.
Whistler, R.L. and Bemiller, J.N. 1999. Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists, Eagan Press. St. Paul, Minnesota.
Wipavadee, D., Chadapon, S., and Sirithon, S. 2014. Antiglycation capacity and antioxidant activities of different pigmented Thai rice. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 49:1805–1810.
Yawadio, R., Tanimori, S. and Morita, N. 2007. Identification of phenolic compounds isolated from pigmented rices and their aldose reductase inhibitory activities. Food Chemistry. 101(4):1616–1625.
Zhang, M.W., Guo, B.J., Zhang, R.F., Chi, J.W., Wei, Z.C., Xu, Z.H., Zhang, Y. and Tang, X.J,. 2006. Separation, purification and identification of antioxidant compositions in black rice. Agricultural Science in China. 5(6):431–440.
Zhang, M.W., Zhang, R.F., Zhang, F.X. and Liu, R.H. 2010. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of black rice bran of different commercially available varieties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 14:7580–7587.