Effect of Endosperm Maturity Stages and Processing Methods on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Arenga Gum Powder Produced from Industrial Discarded Sugar Palm Endosperms


  • Somchai Jomduang Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University
  • Nurul Fatin Syahirah Zainal Abidin Chiang Mai University


Sugar palm endosperms, Maturity stage, Galactomannan, Arenga gum powder, Texturizing agent


Sugar palm (Arenga westerhoutii Griffith) endosperms are processed into canned product in syrup. Some of the sugar palm endosperms (SPEP) that were discarded during sorting could be potentially used as texturizing agent because of their galactomannan content. The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical characteristics of discarded SPEP and the simplest processing methods for arenga gum powder production. It was found that all maturity stages (young, midmature, and mature) did not differ (p > 0.05) in glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose content of SPEP. Mature SPEP showed the hardest texture (12,868.11 ± 7284.4 g.force) compared to young and mid-mature endosperms. Among the four processing methods, crushing the mature endosperms before drying was the simplest, as it was a noncomplicated method with the highest production yield (15.02 ± 0.59%). In addition, it was found that higher drying temperatures produced arenga gum with lower viscosity; 80 °C was the maximum critical drying temperature for arenga gum powder production with high viscosity. Arenga gum powder had similar functional properties to commercial guar gum in terms of water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, and water solubility. At room temperature, 2.75% (w/v) of the arenga gum had the same viscosity as recommended-concentration (1% w/v) commercial guar gum in food applications.


Download data is not yet available.


Anuduang, A. 2017. Optimal storage methods of sugar palm seeds (Arenga westerhoutii Griffith) and production of dried preserved coffee flavour sugar palm. MSc Dissertation. Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

AOAC. 2012. Official Method of Analysis of AOAC International. AOAC International, USA.

Bashir, M. and Haripriya, S. 2016. Assessment of physical and structural characteristics of almond gum. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 93(A): 476–482.

Campia, P., Ponzini, E., Rossi, B., Farris, S., Silvetti, T., Merlinin, L., Brasca, M., Grandori, R. and Galante, Y.M. 2017. Aerogels of enzymatically oxidized galactomannans from leguminous plants: Versatile delivery systems of antimicrobial peptides and enzymes. Carbohydrate Polymers. 158: 102–111.

Chalermklin, P., Kengkaj. P. and Piriyapatarakij, A. 2006. Palm in Thailand. Bangkok: Limited Partnership Pimpinij, Thailand.

Gillet, S., Aguedo, M., Petrut, R., Olive, G., Anastas, P., Blecker, C. and Richel, A. 2017. Structure impact of two galactomannan fractions on their viscosity properties in dilute solution, unperturbed state and gel state. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 96: 550–559.

Hussin, A.S.M., Sapawi, C.W.N.S.C., Anzian, A., and Ramli, H.B. 2017. Aqueous extraction, purification and characterization of galactomannan from aren sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fruits. International Journal on Advance Science Engineering Information Technology. 7(4).

Juan-Mei, L., and Shao-Ping, N. 2016. The functional and nutritional aspects of hydrocolloids in foods. Food Hydrocolloids. 53: 46–41.

Lim, T.K. 2012. Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg. New York.

Liyanage, S., Abidi, N., Auld, D. and Moussa, H. 2015. Chemical and physical characterization of galactomannan from guar cultivar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus L.) Industrial Crops and Products. 74: 388–396.

Martinez-Avila, G.C.G., Hernandez-Almanza, A.Y., Sousa, F.D., Moreira, R., Gutierrez-Sanchez, G. and Aguilar, C.N. 2014. Macromolecular and functional properties of galactomannan form mesquite seed (Prosopis glandulosa). Carbohydrate Polymers. 102:928–931.

Mathur, N.K. 2012. Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharide. CRC Press, Florida, USA.

Mittal, N., Mattu, P. and Kaur, G. 2016. Extraction and derivatization of Leucana leucocephala (Lam.) galactomannan: Optimization and characterization. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 92: 831–841.

Mudgil, D. and Barak, S. 2014. Guar gum: Processing, properties and food applications – A review. Journal Food Science Technology. 51(3): 409–418.

Nussinovitch, A. 1997. Hydrocolloid applications: Gum technology in the food and other industries. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Thanatcha, R. and Pranee, A. 2011. Extraction and characterization of mucilage in Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. International Food Research Journal. 18: 201–2012.

Torio, M.A.O., Saez, J. and Merca, F.E. 2006. Physicochemical characterization of galactomannan form sugar palm (Arenga saccharifera Labill.) endosperms at different stages of nut maturity. Philippine Journal of Science. 135(1): 19–30.

Worasuntarosot, P., Duriyaprapan, S., Arachawakhom, T., Tanpanich, S., Nivasprakit, C. and Sornsungnearn, P., 2001. Plant resources of South-east Asia: PROSEA. Nonthaburi Sahamidth Printing.




How to Cite

Jomduang, Somchai, and Nurul Fatin Syahirah Zainal Abidin. 2018. “Effect of Endosperm Maturity Stages and Processing Methods on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Arenga Gum Powder Produced from Industrial Discarded Sugar Palm Endosperms”. Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 7 (1):18-30. https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/fabjournal/article/view/133680.



Food Processing and Engineering