Synthesis and Efficacy of Silver and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles from Xenorhabdus stockiae PB09 Cell-free Supernatant for Controlling Mushroom Mites
Keywords:Silver nanoparticles, Zinc nanoparticles, Xenorhabdus, Acaricidal activity, Luciaphorus perniciosus
Biological control of mushroom mite (Luciaphorus perniciosus Rack) by cell-free supernatant of Xenorhabdus stockiae PB09, a nematode-symbiotic bacterium, has been shown to be successful, and this needs further development into more effective formulations. Presently, nanotechnology plays an important role in the development of several biological control agents. In this study, cell-free supernatant of Xenorhabdus stockiae PB09 was synthesized into silver and zinc nanoparticles using AgNO3 and Zn(NO3)2 as precursors and then examined for chemical and physical characteristics as well as biological control activity against L. perniciosus Rack. Both silver and zinc nanoparticles (AgNPs and ZnNPs, respectively) synthesized from X. stockiae PB09 cell-free supernatant were shown to form at 350 nm as revealed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that the major functional groups of AgNPs and ZnNPs were amide and amine. Also, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of AgNPs and ZnNPs illustrated that they have triangular and hexagonal crystals, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed that most of the particles found in AgNPs and ZnNPs were small and had organized dispersion. The acaricidal efficacies of AgNPs and ZnNPs were found to be highest against Luciaphorus perniciosus Rack at the mortality rates of 93.33±3.33% and 83.33±5.06%, respectively, which were 21.11% and 11.11% higher than cell-free supernatant of X. stockiae PB09. Hence, AgNPs and ZnNPs synthesized from cell-free supernatant of X. stockiae PB09 cell-free supernatant could be beneficial in the future development of safe and effective biological control agents against mushroom mites.
Ahmad, A., Wei, Y., Syed, F., Tahir, K., Rehman, A.U., Khan, A., Ullah, A., Yuan. Q. 2017. The effects of bacteria-nanoparticles interface on the antibacterial activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles. Microbial Pathogenesis. 102:133–142.
Akhurst, R.J. 1983. Neoaplectana species: specificity of association with bacteria of the genus Xenorhabdus. Experimental Parasitology. 55:258–263.
Ansari, M.A., Tirry, L., Moens, M. 2003. Entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria for the biological control of Hoplia philanthus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Biological Control. 28(1):111–117.
Barapatre, A., Ram, A. and Jha, H. 2016. Synergistic antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of silver nanoparticle biosynthesized by lignin-degrading fungus. Bioresources and Bioprocessing. 3:8.
Bharani, R.S.A. and Namasivayam, S.K.R. 2017. Biogenic silver nanoparticles mediated stress on developmental period and gut physiology of major lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)—An eco-friendly approach of insect pest control. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 5:453–467.
Bode, H.B. 2009. Entomopathogenic bacteria as a source of secondary metabolite. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 13(2):224-230.
Bussaman, P., Sa-Uth, C., Rattanasena, P. and Chandrapatya, A. 2012. Acaricidal activities of whole cell suspension, cell-free supernatant, and crude cell extract of Xenorhabdus stockiae against mushroom mite (Luciaphorus sp.). Journal of Zhejing University Science B. 13(4):261–266.
Bussaman, P., Sobanboa, S., Grewal, P.S. and Chandrapatya, A. 2009. Pathogenicity of additional strains of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus (Enterobacteriaceae) to the mushroom mite Luciaphorus perniciosus (Acari : Pygmephoridae). Applied Entomology and Zoology. 44(2):293–299.
Fang, X.L., Zhang, M., Tang, Q., Wang, Y., and Zhang, X. 2014. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta. Scientific Reports. 4:4300.
Forst, S., Dowds, B., Boemare, N. and Stackebrandt, E. 1997. Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp.: bugs the kill bugs. Annual Review of Microbiology. 51(1):47–72.
Forst, S., and Nealson, K. 1996. Molecular biology of the symbiotic-pathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp. Microbiological Reviews. 60(1):21–43.
Gandhi, P.R., Jayaseelan, C., Mary, R.R., Mathivanan, D. and Suseem, S.R. 2017. Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites. Experimental Parasitology. 181:47–56.
Ghiuta, I., Cristea, D. Croitoru, C. Kost, J. Wenkert, R. Vyrides, I. Anayiotos, A. and Munteanu, D. 2017. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles, biosynthesized using Bacillus species. Applied Surface Science. 438:66–73.
Kumari, M., Pandey, S., Giri, V.P., Bhattacharya, A., Shukla, R., Mishra, A. and Nautiyal C.S. 2017. Tailoring shape and size of biogenic silver nanoparticles to enhance antimicrobial efficacy against MDR bacteria. Microbial Pathogenesis. 105:346–355.
Mahar, A.N., Munir, M., Elawad, S., Gowen, S.R., Hague, N.G.M. 2005. Pathogenicity of bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila isolated from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae) and its secretion against Galleria mellonella larvae. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 6(6):457–463.
Nielsen-LeRoux, C., Gaudriault, S., Ramarao, N., Lereclus, D., and Givaudan, A. 2012. How the insect pathogen bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Xenorhabdus / Photorhabdus occupy their hosts. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 15(3):220–231.
Patra, J.K. and Baek, K.H. 2017. Antibacterial activity and synergistic antibacterial potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against foodborne pathogenic bacteria along with its anticandidal and antioxidant effects. Frontiers in Microbiology. 8:1–14.
Sardella, D., Gatt, R. and Valdramidis, V.P. 2017. Physiological effects and mode of action of ZnO nanoparticles against postharvest fungal contaminants. Food Research International. 101:274–279.