Identification of Yeast Species in Sompuk, a Fermented Vegetable from Vientiane Markets, Lao PDR
Keywords:Sompuk, Fermented vegetables, Yeasts, Enumeration, API identification
Sompuk is Lao fermented vegetable made from mustard green, white cabbage, green onion, cooked skin of cow, salt and some flavoring. In this study, 27 samples comprised of three types of Sompuk, including Sompukkard, Sompukalam and Sompukboua, were obtained from three fresh markets in Vientiane, namely Khuadin, Thongkhankham, Thatluang. All Sompuk samples were determined for the presence of yeast in the products. The results revealed that the fermented vegetable had a range of yeast from 2.26 to 4.67 log CFU/g. After purification and identification, eight species of yeast, namely Candida globosa, C. utilis, C. valida, Rhodotorula glutinis, Sporobolomyces salmonicolor, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schwanniomyces etchellsii and Zygosaccharomyces spp., could be recognized from the Sompuk samples. Some of these yeasts have been applied in food and beverages fermentation. However, the presence of these yeasts in Sompuk products might have a role as spoilage microorganisms.
Aepinus, C. 2008. Medical mycology – Cellular and molecular techniques. In C. Mitcahelll, A. Soon and M. Cronowakit (Eds.). Book review: LaboratoriumsMedizin (pp.118–118). London, England.
Andrade, R.P., Melo, C.N., Genisheva, Z., Schwan, R.F. and Duarte, W.F. 2017. Yeasts from Canastra cheese production process: Isolation and evaluation of their potential for cheese whey fermentation. Food Research International. 91:72–79.
Arroyo-López, F.N., Durán-Quintana, M.C., Ruiz-Barba, J.L., Querol, A. and Garrido-Fernández, A. 2006. Use of molecular methods for the identification of yeast associated with table olives. Food Microbiology. 23:791–796.
Atlas, R.M. 2010. Handbook of microbiological media (pp. 311–312). CRC press, US.
Azizi-Shotorkhoft, A., Mohammadabadi, T., Motamedi, H., Chaji, M. and Fazaeli, H. 2016. Isolation and identification of termite gut symbiotic bacteria with lignocellulose-degrading potential, and their effects on the nutritive value for ruminants of some by-products. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 221:234–242.
Breidt, F., Pérez-Díaz, I., McFeeters, R.F. and Lee, C-H. 2013. Fermented vegetables. In M.P. Doyle and R.L. Buchanan (Eds.). Food microbiology: Fundamental and frontiers (pp. 841–855). American Public Health Association, Washingtong DC, US.
Buckenhuesk, H.J. 2015. Quality improvement and fermentation control in vegetables. In W. Holzapfel (Ed.). Advances in fermented foods and beverages - Improving quality, technologies and health benefits (pp. 515–535). Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK.
Chanprasartsuk, O., Prakitchaiwattana, C. and Sanguandeekul, R. 2013. Comparison of methods for identification of yeasts isolated during spontaneous fermentation of freshly crushed pineapple juices. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 15:1779–1790.
Dang, T.D.T., Vermeulen, A., Ragaert, P. and Devlieghere, F. 2009. A peculiar stimulatory effect of acetic and lactic acid on growth and fermentative metabolism of Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Food Microbiology. 26:320–327.
Deschuyffeleer, N., Audenaert, K., Samapundo, S., Ameye, S., Eeckhout, M. and Devlieghere, F. 2011. Identification and characterization of yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked bread. Food Microbiology. 28(5):1019–1027.
Emmanuel, B. and Hontoyon, E. 2016. Microbiological quality of cold smoked sardine, Sardinella maderensis (Lowe, 1839) in four markets in Lagos Metropolis, Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Aquatic Sciences. 31(1):67–184.
Fleming, H., McFeeters, R. and Daeschel, M. 2013. Fermented and acidified vegetables. In M.L. Speck (Ed.). Compedium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods (pp. 521–532). American Public Health Association, Washington DC, US.
Gadaga, T.H., Mutukumira, A.N. and Narvhus, J.A. 2000. Enumeration and identification of yeasts isolated from Zimbabwean traditional fermented milk. International Dairy Journal. 10:459–466.
Giawang, Y., Yialee, Y., Boulom, S. and Thansamay, D. 2014. Identification of microbiological hazards and comparision of cleaning agents for fresh vegetables from local wet markets in vientiane capital (pp. 61–62). National University of Laos, Vientiane, Laos.
Jalil, W.I. and Zenad, M.M. 2016. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 6(1):67–70.
Jung, S.J., Kim, M.J. and Chae, S.W. 2016. Quality and functional characteristics of kimchi made with organically cultivated young Chinese cabbage (olgari-baechu). Journal of Ethnic Foods. 3(2):150–158.
Maciel, N.O.P., Piló, F.B., Freitas, L.F.D., Gomes, F.C.O., Johann, S., Nardi, R.M.D., Lachance, M.-A. and Rosa, C.A. 2013. The diversity and antifungal susceptibility of the yeasts isolated from coconut water and reconstituted fruit juices in Brazil. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 160:201–205.
Marco, M.L., Heeney, D., Binda, S., Cifelli, C.J., Cotter, P.D., Foligné, B., Gänzle, M., Kort, R., Pasin, G., Pihlanto, A., Smid, E.J. and Hutkins, R. 2017. Health benefits of fermented foods: Microbiota and beyond. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 44: 94–102.
La Anh, N. 2015. Health-promoting microbes in traditional Vietnamese fermented foods: A review. Food Science and Human Wellness. 4(4):147–161.
Lara-Hidalgo, C.E., Hernández-Sánchez, H., Hernández-Rodríguez, C. and Dorantes-Álvarez, L. 2017. Yeasts in fermented foods and their frobiotic potential. Austin Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 4(1):1043–1045.
Lee, M.E., Jang, J.Y., Lee, J.H., Park, H.W., Choi, H.J. and Kim, T.W. 2015. Starter cultures for kimchi fermentation. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 25(5):559–568.
Lee, K.W., Shim, J.M., Park, S.-K., Heo, H.-J., Kim, H.-J., Ham, K.-S. and Kim, J.H. 2016. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potentials from kimchi, traditional Korean fermented vegetable. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 71:130–137.
Liu, D. 2011. Molecular detection of human fungal pathogens (pp.100–110). CRC Press, New York, US.
Liu, X., Kuda, T., Takahashi, H. and Kimura, B. 2018. Bacterial and fungal microbiota of spontaneously fermented Chinese products, Rubing milk cake and Yan-cai vegetable pickles. Food Microbiology. 72:106–111.
Maneewatthana, D., Rapeesak, T. and Suntornsuk, W. 2000. Isolation and identification of yeasts from fermented vegetable brine. KMUTT Research and Development Journal. 23(3):47–62.
Mheen, T.-I. and Kwon, T.-W. 1984. Effect of temperature and salt concentration on kimchi fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology. 16(4): 443–450.
Neetoo, H., Nekoozadeh, S., Jiang, Z. and Chen, H. 2011. Application of high hydrostatic pressure to decontaminate green onions from Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Food Microbiology. 28:1275–1283.
Nguyen, D.T.L., Van Hoorde, K., Cnockaert, M., De Brandt, E., Aerts, M. and Vandamme, P. 2013. A description of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota associated with the production of traditional fermented vegetables in Vietnam. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 163(1):19–27.
Olajuyigbe, O., Amusan, E. and Yusuf, K. 2017. Occurrence of fungi species in some fisheries products from retail markets in Lagos, Nigeria. Food and Applied Bioscience Journal. 5(3):149–154.
Palková, Z. and Váchová, L. 2016. Yeast cell differentiation: Lessons from pathogenic and non-pathogenic yeasts. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 57:110–119.
Pérez-Díaz, I., Breidt, F., Buescher, R., Arroyo-López, F., Jiménez-Díaz, R., Garrido, A. and Johanningsmeier, S. 2014. Fermented and acidified vegetables. In M.L. Speck (Ed.). Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods (pp. 5–17). American Public Health Association, US.
Pu, S.-Y., Qin, L.-l., Che, J.-P., Zhang, B.-R. and Xu, M. 2014. Preparation and application of a novel bioflocculant by two strains of Rhizopus sp. using potato starch wastewater as nutrilite. Bioresource Technology. 162:184–191.
Rhee, S.J., Lee, J.E. and Lee, C.H. 2011. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods. Microbial Cell Factories. 10(1):53–55.
Santos, M.C., Golt, C., Joerger, R.D., Mechor, G.D., Mourão, G.B. and Kung Jr., L. 2017. Identification of the major yeasts isolated from high moisture corn and corn silages in the United States using genetic and biochemical methods. Journal of Dairy Science. 100(2):1151–1160.
Sing, S. 2007. Sompukkard processing (pp.1–3). Sayaburi, Laos.
Tamang, J.P. 2010. Diversity of fermented foods. In J.P. Tamang and K. Kailasapathy (Eds.). Fermented foods and beverages of the world (pp. 41–84). CRC press, New York, US.
Tsuyoshi, N., Fudou, R., Yamanaka, S., Kozaki, M., Tamang, N., Thapa, S. and Tamang, J.P. 2005. Identification of yeast strains isolated from marcha in Sikkim, a microbial starter for amylolytic fermentation. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 99:135–146.
Walker, G.M. and Stewart, G.G. 2016. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the production of fermented beverages. Beverages. 2(4):30–33.
Wang, S.Y., Chen, C.H., Liu, J.R., Lin, Y.C. and Chen, M.J. 2008. Identification of yeasts and evaluation of their distribution in Taiwanese kefir and viili starters. Journal of Dairy Sciences. 91(10):3798–3805.
Xu, W., Chen, H. and Wu, C. 2015. Application of pulsed light (PL)-surfactant combination on inactivation of Salmonella and apparent quality of green onions. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 61:596–601.
Yang, H., Zou, H., Qu, C., Zhang, L., Liu, T., Wu, H. and Li, Y. 2014. Dominant microorganisms during the spontaneous fermentation of Suan Cai, a Chinese fermented vegetable. Food Science and Technology Research. 20(5):915–926.