Antimicrobial Activities of some Herb and Spices Extracted by Hydrodistillation and Supercritical Fluid Extraction on the Growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in Microbiological Media
Keywords:Antimicrobial activity, Herb extracts, Hydrodistillation, Supercritical fluid extraction
This study investigated the antimicrobial actions of Zanthoxylum limonella, neem leaves, garlic and galangal from Laos to inhibit some foodborne pathogens, particularly Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar. Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Herb extracts were obtained by hydrodistillation at 100ºC for 4 h at atmospheric pressure or by supercritical fluid extraction at 45ºC and 17 MPa for 4 h. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were then studied against three different pathogens on microbiological media using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and agar disc diffusion assay. The highest yield extract was determined in the Z. limonella extract obtained by hydrodistillation, which was 6.32±0.40%. In the MIC method, the Z. limonella extract from hydrodistillation and galangal extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction at a concentration of 12.5% could inhibit all of the studied pathogens. However, it was only the Z. limonella extract produced by hydrodistillation that could kill the pathogens at the lowest concentration of 12.5%. Regarding the agar disc diffusion assay, Z. limonella extract from hydrodistillation at 100% concentration could inhibit E. coli for 15.67±1.81 mm, which was not significantly different to that of an antibiotic control of 10 mg methicillin (p≥0.05). For S. Typhimurium and Staph. aureus, the highest inhibition could be significantly achieved by galangal extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction at 100% concentration for 25.87±0.68 and 25.77±0.68 mm, respectively (p<0.05). These inhibition zones were significantly higher than their antibiotic controls of 10 mg amoxycillin and 10 mg methicillin, respectively.
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