Effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) on properties of reduced−fat milk−based ice cream
The objective of this research was to study the effect of black pepper powder (BP) and cinnamon powder (CP) to be used as ingredients in reduced−fat milk−based ice cream. Total extractable phenolic content (TPC), 2,2−diphenyl−1−picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity, and 2,2'−azino−bis (3−ethylbenzothiazoline−6−sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging of BP and CP determined and expressed as mg of Trolox equivalent. In addition, the mixed spice (BP and CP) was mixed into reduced−fat ice cream and evaluated physical, chemical, and sensory properties. The results indicated that BP and CP exhibited a high value of TPC (656.91 ± 17.00 and 2391.85 ± 178.90) and showing the potential of antioxidant properties based on DPPH (18.54 ± 7.10 and 87.31 ± 1.50), FRAP (37.45 ± 3.10 and 108.09 ± 4.50), and ABTS (80.37 ± 19.70 and 701.49 ± 9.40), respectively. Moreover, the reduced−fat ice cream mixed with difference amount of mix spice exhibited the significance of physical and chemical properties. The reduced−fat ice cream with 0.1% mixed spice showed the suitable properties of viscosity (452.23 ± 5.10), melting rate (0.18 ± 0.01), overrun (43.46 ± 4.10), and hardness (7.72 ± 0.71). The sensory evaluation of the reduced−fat ice cream without mixed spice and 0.1% mixed spice also provided high sensory rating scores in the range of 6.5−7.7 and 6.3−6.8, respectively with higher TPC and antioxidant activities in the reduced−fat ice cream with 0.1% mixed spice. In conclusive, the BP and CP can be used as flavouring agent in reduced-fat dessert product and can be used as functional ingredients to create functional dessert.
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