Bitter−masking property of pea eggplant (Solanum torvum Sw.) fruit extract


  • Punyawee Juntasare Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University Bangkok, 10900, Thailand
  • Yaowapa Lorjaroenphon Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University Bangkok, 10900, Thailand


flavor, pea eggplant (Solanum torvum Sw.), bitterness reduction, masking agent, tastant


Bitterness is an unpleasant attribute which influences consumer food choice. There is an attempt to eliminate the bitterness of food by several techniques.
Pea eggplant (Solanum torvum Sw.) fruit has been consumed to reduce the bitter taste of some herbs but there is limited scientific research on this masking characteristic. Therefore, the effect of pea eggplant fruit extract on bitterness reduction of caffeine 654was determined in this study. The results indicated that the bitterness intensity of caffeine solution was significantly decreased (P≤0.05) immediately after tasting the water extract of pea eggplant fruit and the bitterness reduction efficiency in 5 mM and 10 mM of caffeine solutions were 56.1% and 36.3%, respectively. However, the complex formation of caffeine and any components in the extract was not observed by HPLC analysis. The application of pea eggplant fruit extract was further evaluated in various bitter foods including black tea, pomelo juice, and boiled bitter melon. The bitterness aftertaste of 2% (w/v) KCl aqueous solution was also assessed. The sensory results revealed that the extract could reduce bitterness intensities of all samples (P≤0.05) and the efficacy of bitterness reduction ranged from 25.8% to 32.3%.


Download data is not yet available.


Ayenew, Z., Puri, V., Kumar, L. and Bansal, A. K. 2009. Trends in pharmaceutical taste masking technologies: A patent review. Recent Patents on Drug Delivery and Formulation. 3: 26-39.

Banakar, U.V. 1992. Pharmaceutical Dissolution Testing, 1st Ed., Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA.

Binello, A., Cravotto, G., Nano, G. M. and Spagliardi, P. 2004. Synthesis of chitosan−cyclodextrin adducts and evaluation of their bitter−masking properties. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 19: 394-400.

Dea, S., Plotto, A., Manithey, J. A., Raithore, S., Irey, M. and Baldwin, E. 2013. Interaction and thresholds of limonin and nomilin in bitterness perception in orange juice and other matrices. Journal of Sensory Studies. 28: 311-323.

Drewnowski, A. and Gomez−Carneros, C. 2000. Bitter taste, phytonutrients, and the consumer. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 72: 1424-1435

Edwards, R. L., Lyon, T., Litwin, S. E., Rabovsky, A., Symons, J. D. and Jalili, T. 2007. Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. The Journal of Nutrition. 137: 2405-2411.

Fang, E. F. and Ng, T. B. 2011. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: A review of its credited antidiabetic, anti−HIV, and antitumor properties. Current Molecular Medicine. 11: 417-436.

Glendinning, J. I. 1994. Is the bitter rejection response always adaptive? Physiology & Behavior. 56(6): 1217-1227.

Gregory Aharonian 2016. Uses of coca leaf or valerian root to reduce bitterness in plant−based foods such as those containing unsweetened cocoa. WO 2016 118,806.

Guadagi, D.G., Maier, V.P. and Turnbaugh, J.G. 1973. Effect of some citrus constituents on taste thresholds for limonin and naringin bitterness. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 24: 1277-1288.

Guadagi, D.G., Maier, V.P. and Turnbaugh, J.G. 1976. Effect of neodiosmin on threshold and bitterness of limonin in water and orange juice. Journal of Food Science. 41(3): 681-684.

Hodgson, J. M. and Croft, D. 2010. Tea flavonoids and cardiovascular health. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 31: 495-502.

Jones, N. R. 1969. Meat and fish flavors; significance of ribomononucleotides and their metabolites. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 17(4): 712-716.

Kazemi, Khodaiyan, M., F. and Hosseini. S. S. 2019. Utilization of food processing wastes of eggplant as a high potential pectin source and characterization of extracted pectin. Food Chemistry. 249: 339-346.

Keast, R.S.J., Breslin, P.A.S. and Beauchamp, G.K. 2001. Suppression of bitterness using sodium salts. International Journal for Chemistry. 55(5): 441-447.

Keast, R.S.J. and Breslin, P.A.S. 2002. Modifying the bitterness of selected oral pharmaceuticals with cation and anion series of salts. Pharmaceutical Research. 19(7): 1019-1026.

Ley, J.P. 2008. Masking bitter taste by Molecules. Chemosens. Percept. 1: 58-77.

Ley, J.P., Krammer, G., Reinders, G., Gatfield, I.L. and Bertram, H.J. 2005. Evaluation of bitter masking flavanones from Herba Santa (Eriodictyon californicum (H. & A.) Torr., Hydrophyllaceae).Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53: 6061-6066.

Lin, J., Liu, X., Wang, J., Li, D., Zhu, W., Chen, W., Zhang, X.; Li, Q. and Li, M. 2019. An artefactual solution degradant of pregabalin due to adduct formation with acetonitrile catalyzed by alkaline impurities during HPLC sample preparation. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 175: in press.

Masic, I., Ilic, I., Dreu, R., Ibric, S., Parojcic, J. and Djuric, Z. 2012. An investigation into the effect of formulation variables and process parameters on characteristics of granules obtained by in situ fluidized hot melt granulation. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 423(2): 202-212.

Maungthaingam, A., Sarapunt, P., Camilleri, S., Kulvanich, P. and Limwong, V. 2018. Effect of Eudragit® E PO quantity on bitter taste−masking of diclofenac sodium in orally disintegrating tablets. Interprofessional Journal of Health Sciences. 16(1): 70-79.

Meilgaard, M. C., Civille, G. V., and Carr, B. T. 2007. Sensory evaluation techniques (4thEd.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Morishita, M., Matsuzawa, A., Takayama, K., Isowa, K., and Nagai, T. 1998. Improving insulin enteral absorption using water−in−oil−in−water emulsion. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 172(2): 189-198.

Pichaiyongvongdee, S. and Rattanapun, B. 2015. Effect of chemical treatments to reduce the bitterness and drying on chemical physical and functional properties of dietary fiber pomelo powder from Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck albedo. Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science). 49: 122-132.

Sagar, T., Amol, G., Rahul, D., Prashant, P. and Yogesh, S. 2012. Taste masking approaches and evaluation of taste masking. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 4(2): 1895-1907.

Santasombat, Y. 1999. Biodiversity and indigenous knowledge for sustainable development (1sted.) Chiang Mai: Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge Research Center for Sustainable Development, Faculty of Social Sciences Chiang Mai University. (in Thai).

Schienle, A., Arendasy, M. and Schwab, D. 2015. Disgust Responses to Bitter Compounds: The Role of Disgust Sensitivity. Chemosensory Perception. 8(4): 167-173.

Schwab, D., Giraldo, M., Spiegl, B. and Schienle, A. 2017. Disgust evoked by strong wormwood bitterness influences the processing of visual food cues in women: An ERP study. Appetite. 108: 51-56.

Sohi, H., Sultana, Y.and Khar, P. K. 2004. Taste masking technologies in oral pharmaceuticals: Recent developments and approaches. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. 30(5): 429-448.

Suzuki, H., Onishi, H., Hisamatsu, S., Masuda, K., Takahashi, Y., Iwata, M. and Machida, Y. 2004. Acetaminophen−containing chewable tablets with suppressed bitterness and improved oral feeling. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 278(1): 51-61.

Tanaka, T., Kohno, H., Tsukio, Y., Honjo, S., Tanino, M., Miyake, M. and Wada, K. 2000. Citrus limonoids obacunone and limonin inhibit azoxymethane- induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. BioFactors. 13(1-4): 213-218.

Warmke, R. and Belitz, H. D. 1993. Influence of glutamic acid on the bitter taste of various compounds. Zeitschrift Für Lebensmittel−Untersuchung Und–Forschung. 197(2): 132-133.

Zeeb, B., Yavuz−Düzgun, M., Dreher, J., Evert, J., Stressler, T., Fischer, L. and Weiss, J. 2018. Modulation of the bitterness of pea and potato proteins by a complex coacervation method. Food and Function. 9(4): 2261-2269.




How to Cite

Juntasare, Punyawee, and Yaowapa Lorjaroenphon. 2021. “Bitter−masking Property of Pea Eggplant (Solanum Torvum Sw.) Fruit Extract”. Food and Applied Bioscience Journal 9 (1):1-10.



Food Product Development, Sensory, and Consumer Research