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Global warming relating to temperature increasing results in a decrease of seed set and yield of rice. High temperature negatively affects to reduce pollen viability and germination of rice. Each rice variety is different tolerance to high temperature. Therefore, the objective was to study the effect of high temperature at a reproductive stage on seed set, yield, and yield components of rice. The pot experiment was arranged in split-plot in CRD with 4 replications. The main plot was field temperature condition 30-35 °C, and the high temperature controlled-greenhouse at 40-45 °C. The sub-plots were five rice varieties; Chainat 1, Pathum Thani 1, RD41, Sin Lek, and M9962. All rice varieties were planted in pots under the field condition. At the reproductive stage (R2), each variety were tested in the greenhouse under high temperature until harvest (R9) and compared with field condition. The results showed that high temperature significantly decreased the panicle length, panicle weight, yield/plant, seed set, filled seed weight/panicle, total seed weight/panicle, and 1,000 seed weight. At high temperature, Chainat 1 had higher yield/plant 21.80 g than RD41 and Pathum Thani 1. For seed set evaluation, all rive varieties under field condition had seed set higher than 80%, excepting Sin Lek. Whereas, M9962 had seed set of 73.20% followed by Chainat 1 had 60.40% seed set at high temperature. While, Sin Lek, Pathum Thani 1 and RD41 gave seed set of 2.20, 33.10, and 45.30%, respectively.
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