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Field experiments were conducted from February 2018 to May 2018 and October 2018 to January 2019 to evaluate the potentials of elevated soil temperature on crop production, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and CO2 and CH4 emissions along with the imposition of organic amendments, viz. rice straw compost (RSC), mustard meal (MM), and tricho-compost (TC). Soil temperature elevation of 3°C from the field temperature of 23–25°C was considered and RSC at the rates of 0, 4, and 8 t ha–1, MM at the rates of 0, 3, and 6 t ha–1, and TC at the rates of 0, 2.5, and 5 t ha–1 were applied. The carried-over effects of the aforesaid treatments were examined. The highest grain yields of 8.86 t ha–1 for BRRI dhan 29, 8.25 t ha–1 for BRRI dhan 74, and 6.97 t ha–1 for BR 3 rice varieties were recorded under 3°C of temperature rise along with RSC followed by MM and TC, while TC exerted the pronounced effect on the subsequent bottle gourd (BARI Lau–1: Lagenaria siceraria) production (10 fruits/plant). The amounts of MBC in the soils were maximum at 60 days after transplantation of rice, compared to other growth stages of rice under soil temperature rise of 3°C with TC at 2.5 t ha–1 in the first trial, while MBC contents were increased with the advent of time in succeeding soil, irrespective of the treatments which might be due to the flourishment of Trichoderma spp. even under stressful conditions. The elevated temperature notably increased CO2 emission (from 500 to 1,800 mg m–2 h–1) but lessened CH4 emission (from 985 to 687 mg m–2 h–1). The CH4 emission was greatly influenced by MBC compared to CO2. Among the used amendments, mustard meal exerted the highest absorption capacity of the analyzed gases in soil by conserving 20–30% soil moisture which thereby ameliorated microbial abundance. Furthermore, the practices of the mustard meal and tricho-compost in the field markedly increased crop production, improved soil health, and lessened CH4 emission.
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