Performance evaluation for yield of four cultivars of cassava intercropped with three varieties of maize in Anyigba, Kogi State

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U.T. Musa
M. Yusuf
G.E. Antenyi


Background and Objectives: A field experiment was conducted during the 2021/2022 rainy season at Prince Abubakar Audu University Teaching and Research Farm to investigate the yield and yield performance of four cultivars of cassava intercropped with three varieties of maize in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria.
Methodology: Treatment consisted of four cultivars of cassava – TMS0581, TME419, LOCAL, and TMS30572 and three maize varieties – SAMAZ52, OBASUPER6, and LOCAL, which were factorially combined to give a total of twelve treatment combinations plus a plot each of three varieties of maize and four cultivars of cassava. A total of 19 treatments were laid in a randomized complete block design replicated three times, giving 57 plots.
Main Results: Results revealed a significant (P < 0.05) difference between cassava and/or maize yield parameters in sole and/or intercrops. Intercropping maize and cassava cultivars (TMS0581/SAMAZ52) produced significantly (P < 0.05) the highest number of ears/plant (1.43) for maize. In contrast, the sole planting of TMS0581 produced higher yields for cassava crops than in its corresponding intercrop. Cassava (TMS0581) yielded 17.33 t ha-1 when planted as the sole crop, and the yield dropped to 5.42 t ha-1 when intercropped with maize (LOCAL variety), thus indicating a 68.8% yield loss to intercropping. All cassava cultivars planted sole had the highest number of stands at harvest and were at par with TMS30572/OBASUPER6 and TMS30572/LOCAL. Similarly, cassava varieties exhibited an advantage in intercropping (SAMAZ52/TME419 and OBASUPER6/TMS30572 cultivars being the highest). However, TME419 and LOCAL cassava cultivars had the tallest height when planted sole. Maize varieties grew taller in intercrops than when planted sole. Other maize and cassava yield characters were significantly not influenced (P > 0.05) by sole and intercropping systems throughout the trial. SAMAZ52 had the highest yield (3,533.35 kg ha-1) when intercropped with TME419 but was not significantly different from other intercropping and sole cropping systems. Very high aggressivity coefficient (0.72) of cassava over maize and preponderances of high value (15.17) of relative crowding coefficient and competitive ratio (17.06) of cassava over maize may be an indication that some cassava cultivars (especially TMS30572 and LOCAL) have high smothering capacity over maize.
Conclusions: From the previous result, sole cropping of TMS0581 was outstanding for tuber yield in Anyigba. Interaction of cassava and maize showed that OBASUPER6 intercropped with TMS30572 and TME419 intercropped SAMAZ52 provided significantly the highest yield for both mixtures and thus recommended. Given the rate at which the population is growing and its attendant urbanization threats, the need to conserve land through intercropping cannot come at a better time than now. For intercropping to be effective, adequate research on compatible crop mixtures has to be adequately and effectively worked upon in other locations. This implies screening all possible crop variety combinations. In situations where more than two crop varieties are involved, the situation can only be better imagined.

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