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Diversity and genetic marker for species identification of edible mushrooms in the Koak Ngam forest, Muang, Maha Sarakham, Thailand was conducted in October 2012 to October 2013. A total of 31 species from 15 genera and 7 families were found. The genetic variation based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences for 11 species, representing four genera of the edible mushrooms. The ITS sequences revealed considerable genetic variation. R. luteotacta, A. princeps and X. subtomentosus showed high levels of genetic differentiation. These findings indicated that the Thai samples could be genetically distinct species. Therefore,
further molecular and morphological examinations were needed to clarify the status of these species. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that X. subtomentosus was polyphyletic. The results were onsistent with previous studies suggesting that classifications of these genera need re-examining. At the species level, the level of genetic divergence could be used for species identification.