Main Article Content
The effect of nanoemulsions containing high medium chain fatty acid (MCFs) including coconut oil and palm kernel oil as edible coatings on color, microbiological and sensory characteristics of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fillets during chilled storage (4±0.5 ºC) were investigated in comparison with sunflower seed oil nanoemulsion coating and control (coated with distilled water). The lowest oil droplet particle size diameter of nanoemulsions was obtained when Span 80 was used as an emulsifier (HLB = 4.3). The median oil particle sizes of coconut oil nanoemulsion, palm kernel oil nanoemulsion and sunflower oil nanoemulsion were 219±5, 228±8, and 322±6 nm, respectively. In addition, the highest negative zeta potential was observed in this system. Coated fish fillets with all nanoemulsions tended to have lower degree of lipid oxidation compared to the control (p < 0.05). Drip loss and discoloration of fish fillets were also reduced in all nanoemulsion-coated fish fillets compared to those of the control (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences in such parameters were noticeable between those 2 high MCFs containing nanoemulsion-coated fish fillets (p < 0.05). Coated sea bass fillets with both high MCFs containing nanoemulsions had greater activity in preventing fish discoloration, microbial inhibition and overall sensory characteristics than sunflower oil nanoemulsion-coated fish fillet (p < 0.05). The results indicated that fish fillet coated with coconut oil nanoemulsion had superior effect on inhibiting the microbial growth to other samples throughout the storage period (24 days). Thus, coating fish fillet with coconut oil nanoemulsion can be used as a promising alternative means for keeping overall qualities of sea bass fillet during cold storage.
 Sun, L., Sun, J., Thavaraj, P., Yang, X. and Guo, Y., 2017, Effects of thinned young apple polyphenols on the quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) surimi during cold storage, Food Chem. 224: 372-381.
 Yazgan, H., Ozogul, Y., Durmuş, M., Balikçi, E., Gökdoğan, S., Uçar, Y. and Aksun, E.T., 2017, Effects of oil-in-water nanoemulsion based on sunflower oil on the quality of farmed sea bass and gilthead sea bream stored at chilled temperature (2±2 ºC), J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 26: 979-992.
 McClements, D.J. and Rao, J., 2011, Food-grade nanoemulsions: Formulation, fabrication, properties, performance, biological fate, and potential toxicity, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 51: 285-330.
 Al-Adham, I.S.I., Khalil, E., Al-Hmoud, N.D., Kierans, M. and Collier, P.J., 2000, Microemulsions are membrane-active, antimicrobial, self-preserving systems, J. Appl. Microbiol. 89: 32-39.
 Baker, J.R.Jr., Hamouda, T., Shih, A. and Myc, A., 2003, U.S. Patent No. 6,559,189, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC.
 Joe, M.M., Chauhan, P.S., Bradeeba, K., Shagol, C., Sivakumaar, P.K. and Sa, T., 2012, Influence of sunflower oil based nanoemulsion (AUSN-4) on the shelf life and quality of Indo-Pacific king mackerel (Scomberomorus guttatus) steaks stored at 20 ºC, Food Control. 23: 564-570.
 Shadman, S., Hosseini, S.E., Langroudi, H.E. and Shabani, S., 2017, Evaluation of the effect of a sunflower oil-based nano emulsion with Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil on the physicochemical properties of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during cold storage, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 79: 511-517.
 Özogul, Y., Durmus, M., Ucar, Y., Özogul, F. and Regenstein, J.M., 2016, Comparative study of nanoemulsions based on commercial oils (sunflower, canola, corn, olive, soybean, and hazelnut oils): Effect on microbial, sensory, and chemical qualities of refrigerated farmed sea bass, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 33: 422-430.
 Anzaku, A.A., Akyala, J.I., Juliet, A. and Obianuju, E.C., 2017, Antibacterial activity of lauric acid on some selected clinical isolates, Ann. Clin. Lab. Res. 5: 1-5.
 Sotomayor-Gerding, D., Oomah, B.D., Acevedo, F., Morales, E., Bustamante, M., Shene, C. and Rubilar, M., 2016, High carotenoid bioaccessibility through linseed oil nanoemulsions with enhanced physical and oxidative stability, Food Chem. 199: 463-470.
 Benjakul, S., Seymour, T.A., Morrissey, M.T. and An, H., 1997, Physicochemical changes in Pacific whiting muscle proteins during iced storage, J. Food Sci. 62: 729-733.
 Ng, C.S., 1978, Measurement of Free and Expressible Drips. in Hasegawa, H. (Ed.), Manual on Analytical Methods and Procedure for Fish and Fish Products Laboratory, Southest Asian Fisheries Development Center, Singapore.
 Buege, J.A. and Aust, S.D., 1978, Microsomal lipid peroxidation methods, Method. Enzyme 52: 302-310.
 Benjakul, S. and Bauer, F., 2001, Biochemical and physicochemical changes in catfish (Silurus glanis Linne) muscle as influenced by different freeze-thaw cycles, Food Chem. 72: 207-217.
 Chaijan, M., Benjakul, S., Visessanguan, W. and Faustman, C., 2004, Characteristics and gel properties of muscles from sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) and mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) caught in Thailand, Food Res. Intern. 37: 1021-1030.
 AOAC, 2000, Official methods of analysis (16th Ed.), Association of Official Analysis Chemists, Washington, DC.
 Lee, K.T., and Akoh, C.C., 1998, Characterization of enzymatically synthesized structured lipids containing eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and caprylic acids, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75: 495-499.
 Sanguansri, P. and Augustin, M.A., 2006, Nanoscale materials development – a food industry perspective, Trends Food Sci. Tech. 17: 547-556.
 Hong, H., Luo, Y., Zhou, Z. and Shen, H., 2012, Effects of low concentration of salt and sucrose on the quality of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets stored at 4 ºC, Food Chem. 133: 102-107.
 Sikorski, Z.E., Kolakowska, A. and Burt, J.R., 1990, Postharvest Biochemical and Microbial Changes Seafood, pp. 55-75, In Sikorski, Z.E. (Ed.), Resources Nutritional Composition and Preservation. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
 Fan, W., Sun, J., Chen, Y., Qiu, J., Zhang, Y. and Chi, Y., 2009, Effects of chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of silver carp during frozen storage, Food Chem. 115: 66-70.
 Sallam, Kh.I., Ahmed, A.M., Elgazzar, M.M. and Eldaly, E.A., 2007, Chemical quality and sensory attributes of marinated Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) during vacuum-packaged storage at 4 ºC. Food Chem. 102: 1061-1070.
 Chaijan, M., Benjakul, S., Visessanguan, W., Lee, S. and Faustman, C., 2007, The effect of freezing and aldehydes on the interaction between fish myoglobin and myofibrillar proteins, J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 4562-4568.
 Shviro, Y., Zilber, I. and Shaklai, N., 1982, The interaction of hemoglobin with phosphatidylserine vesicles, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Rev. 687: 63-70.
 Chaijan, M., Benjakul, S., Visessanguan, W. and Faustman, C., 2005, Changes of pigments and colour in sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) and mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) muscle during iced storage, Food Chem. 93: 607-617.
 Church, N., 1998, MAP fish and crustaceans-sensory enhancement, Food Sci. Technol. Today. 12: 73-83.
 Simeonidou, S., Govaris, A. and Vareltzis, K., 1998, Quality assessment of seven Mediterranean fish species during storage on ice, Food Res. Int. 30: 479-484.
 Abdel-Hamied, A.A. Nassar, A.G. and El-Badry, N.N., 2009, Investigations on antioxidant and antibacterial activities of some natural extracts, World J. Dairy Food Sci. 4: 1-7.
 Badee, A.Z.M., Moawad, R.K., ElNoketi, M.M. and Gouda, M.M., 2013, Improving the quality and shelf-life of refrigerated chicken meat by marjoram essential oil, J. App. Sci. Res. 9: 5718-5729.
 Bogdanovíc, T., Šimat, V., Frka-Roić, A. and Marković, K., 2012, Development and application of quality index method scheme in a shelf-life study of wild and fish farm affected bogue (Boops boops L.), J. Food Sci. 77: 99-106.
 Ofstad, R., Kidman, S., Myklebust, R., Olsen, R.L. and Hermansson, A.M., 1996, Factors influencing liquid-holding capacity and structural changes during heating of comminuted cod (Gadus morhua L.) muscle, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 29: 173-183.
 ICMSF, 1986, Microorganisms in Foods 2 – Sampling for Microbiological Analysis, Principles and Specific Applications, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.