Main Article Content
Organic agroecosystem strives for sustainability through enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity while limiting the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. It has the potential to provide varied ecosystem services (ES) apart from food. Bhutan started organic farming (OF) officially since 2004 declaring Gasa as 100% organic district. However, knowledge on people’s perception on ES in organic agroecosystem is limited. Thus, study was conducted to assess people’s perception on ES in organic agroecosystem for direct use value at Gasa district. The sampling for this study was conducted at two levels. Firstly, the district and the gewogs were purposively selected since Khatoe and Khamaed gewogs under Gasa employ OF. The households under selected gewog were sampled using systematic random sampling. A total sample of 52 (N=174) households were selected for this study. Two approaches were employed to examine direct use value: (1) assessed people’s perceived value of provisioning and socio-cultural services, and (2) economic value from organic agroecosystem. The respondents perceived That OF has the potential to yield direct use values. Khatoed and Khamaed could avoid the cost of $38.62 and $130.35 respectively for not having to buy organically certified crops. Also, the willingness to accept monetary value on average were $ 1.02, $0.16 $ 0.84 for foreigners, students and visitors from other community respectively. This study would provide knowledge on the potential of OF on ES provision from the point of view of OF practitioner. Since this result is subject to vary overtime, such studies should be conducted at regular period to make precise decision to provide timely intervention.
Badgley, C., J. Moghtader, E. Quintero, E. Zakem, M. J. Chappell, K. Aviles-Vazquez, A. Samulon, and I. Perfecto. 2007. Organic agriculture and the global food supply. Renewable agriculture and food systems. 22: 86-108.
Baker, B. P., C. M. Benbrook, G. E III, and K. L. Benbrook. 2002. Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets. Food Additives & Contaminants. 19: 427-446.
Barton, G. A. 2018. The global history of organic farming. Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online.Brown, T. C., J. C. Bergstrom, and J. B. Loomis. 2007. Defining, valuing, and providing ecosystem goods and services. Natural Resources Journal. 47: 329-376.
Chen, N., H. Li, and L. Wang. 2009. A GIS-based approach for mapping direct use value of ecosystem services at a county scale: Management implications. Ecological economics. 68: 2768-2776.
Chen, Y., Z. Yu, X. Li, and P. Li. 2018. How agricultural multiple ecosystem services respond to socioeconomic factors in Mengyin County, China. Science of the Total Environment. 630: 1003-1015.
Crossman, N. D., B. Burkhard, S. Nedkov, L. Willemen, K. Petz, I. Palomo, E. G. Drakou, B. Martín-Lopez, T. McPhearson, and K. Boyanova. 2013. A blueprint for mapping and modelling ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services. 4: 4-14.
Dabbert, S., A. M. Haring, and R. Zanoli. 2004. Organic farming: policies and prospects. London and New York: Zed Books.
Daily, G. C. 2000. Management objectives for the protection of ecosystem services. Environmental science & policy. 3: 333-339.
Das, A., D. Patel, M. Kumar, G. Ramkrushna, A. Mukherjee, J. Layek, S. Ngachan, and J. Buragohain. 2017. Impact of seven years of organic farming on soil and produce quality and crop yields in eastern Himalayas, India. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 236: 142-153.
De Bruin, A., and J. E. Ensor. 2018. Innovating in context: social learning and agricultural innovation.Proceedings of the 13th European IFSA Symposium: Farming systems: facing uncertainties and enhancing opportunities. July 2, International Conference Center of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (MAICh): International Farming Systems Association.
de Groot, R. S., M. A. Wilson, and R. M. Boumans. 2002. A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecological economics. 41: 393-408.
Department of Agriculture. 2of Agricultu006. National Framework for Organic Farming in Bhutan. Department of Agriculture, Ministry re, Royal Government of Bhutan Retrieved August 19, 2017 from http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/bhu167577.pdf
Department of Agriculture. 2016. Agriculture Statistics 2016. Thimphu: Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Forest, Royal Government of Bhutan. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/user1/Downloads/Agriculture-Statistics-2016.pdf
Dou, Y., L. Zhen, X. Yu, M. Bakker, G.-J. Carsjens, and Z. Xue. 2018. Assessing the influences of ecological restoration on perceptions of cultural ecosystem services by residents of agricultural landscapes of western China. Science of the Total Environment. 646: 685-695.
Duba, S., M. Ghimiray, and T. R. Gurung. 2008. Promoting organic farming in Bhutan: A review of policy, implementation and constraints. Dzongkhag Administration. 2018. Dzongkhag Administration, Gasa. Retrieved 12, 2018 from http://www.gasa.gov.bt/index.php/gewogs/khatoed Favilli, E., A. Rossi, and G. Brunori. 2015. Food networks: collective action and local development. The role of organic farming as boundary object. Organic agriculture. 5: 235-243.
Food and Agriculture Organization. 2016. Sustainable agriculture for biodiversity: biodiversity for sustainable agriculture: Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6602e.pdfGasa Dzongkhag Administration. 2017. Royal Government of Bhutan, Dzongkhag Administration, Gasa. Retrieved September 3, 2017 from http://www.gasa.gov.bt/?p=1146Gross National Happiness Commission. 2013. Eleventh Five Year Plan. Thimphu, Bhutan: Gross National Happiness Commission, Royal Government of Bhutan. Retrieved from http://policy.thinkbluedata.com/sites/default/files/11th-Plan-Vol-2_compressed.pdf
Hansen, L., E. Noe, and K. Højring. 2006. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture. An analysis of contested concepts and values among different actors in organic farming. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 19: 147-168.
Horne, P., and W. Stür. 1999. Developing forage technologies with smallholder farmers: How to select the best varieties to offer farmers in Southeast Asia. IFOAM. 2005. Principles of Organic Agriculture Preamble. Retrieved from https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/poa_english_web.pdf
IFOAM. 2012. The IFOAM Norms for Organic production and Processing: Version 2012. Bonn, Germany: IFOAM. Retrieved from https://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/ifoam_norms_version_august_2012_with_cover.pdf
Knudsen, M. T., N. Halberg, J. E. Olesen, J. Byrne, V. Iyer, and N. Toly. 2006. Global trends in agriculture and food systems. In N. Halberg, H. F. Alroe, & M. T. Knudsen (Eds.), Global Development of Organic Agriculture: Challenges and Prospects. UK and USA: CABI Publishing.
Løes, A.-K. 2015. 4th international Organic Agricultural Forum in China. Retrieved from http://isofar.org/isofar/isofar/index.php/8-conferences/38-4th-international-organic-agricultural-forum-in-china
Luttikholt, L. W. 2007. Principles of organic agriculture as formulated by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. NJAS-Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences. 54: 347-360.
McCrae-Hokenson, M. 2014. Organic Agriculture in Bhutan: Barriers Going to 100%. SIT Digital Collections.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Washington, D.C: Retrieved from https://groups.nceas.ucsb.edu/sustainability-science/2010%20weekly-sessions/session-5-2013-10.11.2010-the-environmental-services-that-flow-from-natural-capital/supplemental-readings-from-the-reader/MEA%20synthesis%202005.pdf/at_download/file
Millstone, E., and T. Lang. 2003. The atlas of food: Who eats what, where and why. Nutrition & Food Science. 33: 182-182.
National Statistics Bureau. 2016. Annual Dzongkhag Statistics, Gasa. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Statistics Bureau. Retrieved April 15, 2018 from http://www.nsb.gov.bt/xl/?dir=SUBJECTS/ANNUAL%20DZONGKHAG%20STATISTICS/2016/Gasa/4.%20Labor%20Forces%20%26%20Employment National Statistics Bureau. 2017. Population and Housing Census of Bhutan: Gasa Dzongkhag. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Statistics Bureau, Royal Government of Bhutan. Retrieved from http://www.nsb.gov.bt/publication/files/PHCB2017_Gasa.pdfNational Statistics Bureau. 2018. Population and housing census of Bhutan 2017. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Statistics Bureau. Retrieved April 15, 2018 from http://www.nsb.gov.bt/publication/files/PHCB2017_national.pdf
Nemes, N. 2009. Comparative analysis of organic and non-organic farming systems: A critical assessment of farm profitability. Rome, Italy: F. a. A. O. o. t. U. Nations. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ef02/8b1685941b84179c466b-05de7fe6d8c8a746.pdf
Rundgren, G. 2002. Organic Agricul-ture and Food Security, IFOAM Dossier 1. Tholey, Germany: Inter-national Federation of Organic Ag-riculture Movements.Sandhu, H. S. 2007. Quantifying the economic value of ecosystem ser-vices on arable farmland: a bot-tom-up approach. Doctoral Thesis. Lincoln University. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/user1/Downloads/sandhu_phd%20(1).pdf
Sandhu, H. S., S. D. Wratten, and R. Cullen. 2007. From poachers to gamekeepers: perceptions of farm-ers towards ecosystem services on arable farmland. International Jour-nal of Agricultural Sustainability. 5: 39-50.
Sandhu, H. S., S. D. Wratten, and R. Cullen. 2010. Organic agriculture and ecosystem services. Environ-mental science & policy. 13: 1-7.
Scialabba, N. E.-H., and M. Müller-Lin-denlauf. 2010. Organic agriculture and climate change. Renewable agricul-ture and food systems. 25: 158-169.
SMART Methodology. 2012. Sampling methods and sample size calcula-tion for the SMART methodology. Retrieved from https://www.hu-manitarianresponse.info/sites/www.humanitarianresponse.info/files/documents/files/Sampling_Pa-per_June_2012.pdf Tashi, S. 2015. The Prospects of Organ-ic Farming in Bhutan. Ph. D. des-sertation Thesis. University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
Terwee, C. B., L. B. Mokkink, D. L. Knol, R. W. Ostelo, L. M. Bouter, and H. C. de Vet. 2012. Rating the methodological quality in systemat-ic reviews of studies on measure-ment properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist. Quality of Life Research. 21: 651-657.
Tiejun, W., L. Kinchi, C. Cunwang, H. Huili, and Q. Jiansheng. 2012. Eco-logical civilization, indigenous cul-ture, and rural reconstruction in China. Monthly Review. 63: 29.
Wangchuk, S. 2018, June 30. Interview. Khamae Gewog, Gasa district, Bhutan.Wangmo, S., and C. B. Iwai. 2018. Per-formance of Organic Agriculture based on Emergent Properties of Agriculture System in Gasa, Bhu-tan. Khon Kaen Agriculture Jour-nal. 46: 1202-1210.