ชีววิทยาของพฤติกรรมการผสมพันธุ์ของเพลี้ยกระโดดสีน้ำตาล

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ฐานัฎ ณ พัทลุง

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เพลี้ยกระโดดสีน้ำตาลเป็นแมลงศัตรูข้าวที่มีความสำคัญในกระบวนการปลูกข้าวระบบนาชลประทานของประเทศไทย เนื่องจากเป็นแมลงที่มีการอพยพเคลื่อนย้ายในระหว่างฤดูและสิ้นฤดูการปลูกข้าว เพื่อหาแหล่งอาหารและถิ่นที่อยู่ในการดำรงเผ่าพันธุ์ เมื่อมีการเพิ่มจำนวนประชากรในปริมาณมากจะส่งผลให้ผลผลิตถูกทำลายได้รับความเสียหายทั้งทางตรงและทางอ้อม พฤติกรรมการผสมพันธุ์ของแมลงมีบทบาทสำคัญต่อรูปแบบการแพร่ระบาดของแมลงภายใต้อิทธิพลของปฏิสัมพันธ์ร่วมระหว่างปัจจัยทางกายภาพ ปัจจัยทางชีวภาพ และปัจจัยทางเคมี พฤติกรรมการผสมพันธุ์ของเพลี้ยกระโดดสีน้ำตาลประกอบด้วยขั้นตอน ดังนี้ 1) การเคลื่อนที่ของแมลงเพื่อตอบสนองต่อสิ่งเร้า; 2) พฤติกรรมการเกี้ยวพาราสีและการสื่อสารด้วยสัญญาณเสียงในการเรียกหาคู่; 3) การเคาะสัมผัสและการจัดตำแหน่งทางเพศเพื่อเตรียมความพร้อมในการผสมพันธุ์; 4) ความพยายามในการผสมพันธุ์และปลดปล่อยพฤติกรรมตามสัญชาตญาณ; 5) การผสมพันธุ์และการลดความล้มเหลวในการผสมพันธุ์; 6) ความสำเร็จของการผสมพันธุ์; 7) การยุติการผสมพันธุ์ การผละออก และความพยายามขยายระยะเวลาการผสมพันธุ์ และ 8) พฤติกรรมการเลือกตำแหน่งและการวางไข่บนพืชอาศัย ตามลำดับ ดังนั้นความเข้าใจเกี่ยวกับพฤติกรรมการผสมพันธุ์ของเพลี้ยกระโดดสีน้ำตาลจะมีประโยชน์อย่างยิ่งต่อการกำหนดยุทธศาสตร์และแนวทางปฎิบัติเพื่อการบริหารจัดการศัตรูพืชและการอารักขาพืชอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพและเกิดประสิทธิผลสูงสุดอย่างยั่งยืน ตลอดจนมีความสอดคล้องกับระบบนิเวศวิทยาของแมลง ระบบนิเวศเกษตร และระบบเกษตรกรรมยั่งยืน

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References

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