Valuation of soil ecosystem services of organic farming agroecosystem as an approach to natural resource management at Gasa, Bhutan

Main Article Content

Serki Wangmo
Chuleemas Boonthai Iwai

บทคัดย่อ

Bhutan officially commenced organic farming (OF) since 2004 declaring Gasa as 100% organic district. OF is one of the proven approaches to improve soil quality. Therefore, the value of soil ecosystem services (ES) of organic agroecosystem were studied at Gasa, Bhutan. Study was carried out at Goenkhatoe and Goenkhamae gewog (village block) under Gasa district. The ES was assessed include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK), soil formation, and soil moisture regulation and carbon sequestration. The two comparative studies on the state of ES were performed: (1) between the two study areas and (2) among the soils growing carrot, garlic, potato, and the forest. The economic value was determined using the cost avoided valuation method. The economic value was estimated from the total cultivated area of 296.36 acres (farms growing certified crops: carrot, garlic and potato). Results showed that soil quality was good enough requiring no external synthetic inputs to provide ample ES without compromising the crop yield. The soil ES of OF was found higher at Goenkhatoe than Goenkhamae. When comparing the ES of soils of OF and forest, the ES were not significantly different except for nitrogen and phosphorus. Moreover, farmers could avoid the cost of USD 21,124.03 for not having to buy NPK fertilizer, USD0.406 from soil formation, USD 824,939.11 from carbon capture and USD345,501 for not having to irrigate field. This study reveals OF has the potential to enhance soil ES by sustaining the good soil quality. Moreover, OF could reap huge economic benefits for not having to depend on external inputs. These findings would provide holistic knowledge about the potential of OF in soil ES provision for the decision makers and other farmers to make authentic decision. However, we recommend conducting similar studies at a regular basis since the result is subject to vary over time due to varied geophysical factors. An aggregate of such results over time would contribute to better decision making.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

บท
บทความวิจัย (research article)

References

Adesope, O., E. Matthews-Njoku, N. Oguzor, and V. Ugwuja. 2012. Effect of socio-economic characteristics of farmers on their adoption of organic farming practices,(Eds.), Crop Production Technologies edition. IntechOpen.

Anderson, J. P. 1982. Soil respiration. Madison, New York: Agronomy Monograph.

Barrios, E. 2007. Soil biota, ecosystem services and land productivity. Ecological economics. 64: 269-285.

Barrios, E., V. Valencia, M. Jonsson, A. Brauman, K. Hairiah, P.E. Mortimer, and S. Okubo. 2018. Contribution of trees to the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management. 14: 1-16.

Carls, E., T. Griffin, and G. Ibendahl. 2018. Farm Management Implications of Transitioning from Conventional to Organic Production: An Application of Whole-Farm Linear Programming Model to Examine Transition Period. Paper presented at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Jacksonville, Florida.

Carmo, M., R. García-Ruiz, M.I. Ferreira, and T. Domingos. 2017. The NPK soil nutrient balance of Portuguese cropland in the 1950s: The transition from organic to chemical fertilization. Scientific reports. 7: 81-110.

Christie, M., N. Hanley, and S. Hynes. 2007. Valuing enhancements to forest recreation using choice experiment and contingent behaviour methods. Journal of Forest Economics. 13: 75-102.

Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. De Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon and J. Paruelo. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature. 387: 253-260.

Costanzo, A.,and P. Bàrberi. 2014. Functional agrobiodiversity and agroecosystem services in sustainable wheat production. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 34: 327-348.

Daryanto, S., P.A. Jacinthe, B. Fu, W. Zhao, and L. Wang. 2019. Valuing the ecosystem services of cover crops: barriers and pathways forward. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 270-271: 76-78.

Das, A., D. Patel, M. Kumar, G. Ramkrushna, A. Mukherjee, J. Layek, and J. Buragohain. 2017. Impact of seven years of organic farming on soil and produce quality and crop yields in eastern Himalayas, India. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 236: 142-153.

Dendup, T., Gyeltshen, T., Penjor, L., Dorji, P. 2017. The Factors Affecting Success of Small Agro-Enterprises in Bhutan.

Department of Agriculture. 2006. National Framework for Organic Farming in Bhutan. Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan

Dinis, I., Ortolani, L., Bocci, R., Brites, C. 2015. Organic agriculture values and practices in Portugal and Italy. Agricultural Systems. 136: 39–45.

Fraser, P., Williams, P., Haynes, R. 1996. Earthworm species, population size and biomass under different cropping systems across the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand. Applied Soil Ecology. 3: 49-57.

García‐Palacios, P., Gattinger, A., Bracht‐Jørgensen, H., Brussaard, L., Carvalho, F., Castro, H., Foulquier, A. 2018. Crop traits drive soil carbon sequestration under organic farming. Journal of applied ecology. 55: 2496-2505.

Garibaldi, L. A., Andersson, G. K., Requier, F., Fijen, T. P., Hipólito, J., Kleijn, D., Rollin, O. 2018. Complementarity and synergisms among ecosystem services supporting crop yield. Global Food Security. 17: 38-47.

Gasa Dzongkhag Administration. 2017. Royal Government of Bhutan, Dzongkhag Administration, Gasa. http://www.gasa.gov.bt/?p=1146
Gross National Happiness Commission. 2013. Eleventh Five Year Plan (2013-2018). Thimphu, Bhutan. Gross National Happiness Commission, Royal Government of Bhutan.

He, Z., Zhang, M., Zhao, A., Olanya, O. M., Larkin, R. P., Honeycutt, C. W. 2016. Quantity and Nature of Water-Extractable Organic Matter from Sandy Loam Soils with Potato Cropping Management. Agricultural & Environmental Letters. 1: 1-6.

Horwitz, W., Latimer, G. 1996. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International,(Eds.), Association of Official Agricultural Chemist edition. AOAC International.Gaithersburg, Maryland,

Iwai, C. B., Pratad, Y., Sereepong, S., Noller, B. 2008. Earthworm: Potential Bioindicator for Monitoring Diffuse Pollution by Agrochemical Residues in Thailand. KKU Research Journal. 13: 1081-1088.

Kristiansen, P., 2006. Overview of organic agriculture, in: P. Kristiansen, A. Taji, & J. P. Reganold (Eds.), Organic agriculture: a global perspective edition. CSIRO publishing.Australia and New Zealand.

Lal, R., 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma. 123: 1-22.

Meng, F., Y. Qiao, W. Wu, P. Smith, and S. Scott. 2017. Environmental impacts and production performances of organic agriculture in China: A monetary valuation. Journal of environmental management. 188: 49-57.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Washington, D.C. https://groups.nceas.ucsb.edu/sustainability-science/2010%20weekly-sessions/session-5-2013-10.11.2010-the-environmental-services-that-flow-from-natural-capital/supplemental-readings-from-the-reader/MEA%20synthesis%202005.pdf/at_download/file

National Soil Services Center. 2009. A Guide to Fertilizer Recommendation for Major Crops. Thimphu. National Soil Services Center, Department of Agriculture.

National Statistics Bureau. 2017a. Bhutan Living Standards Survey Report http://www.nsb.gov.bt/publication/files/pub2yo10667rb.pdf

National Statistics Bureau. 2017b. Statistical Yearbook of Bhutan 2017. Thimphu, Bhutan. National Statistics Bureau.

Naumova-Mihajlovska, K. H., 2017. Organic Agriculture in Republic of Macedonia and Possibilities for Enhancing. Journal of Sustainable Development. 7, 175-190.

Pearson, T. R., S.L. Brown, and R.A. Birdsey. 2007. Measurement Guidelines for the Sequestration of Forest Carbon. Newtown Square, USA. http://ipclimatechange.trg-learning.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Measurement-guidelines-for-the-sequestration-of-forest-carbon.pdf

Pennock, D., T. Yates, and J. Braidek. 1993. Soil Sampling Designs, in: M. R. Carter.(Eds.), Soil sampling and methods of analysis edition. CRC Press, pp. 1-14

Pfiffner, L., 2014. Earthworms: architects of fertile soils: Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Switzerland, and TILMAN-ORG Consortium.

Pimentel, D., C. Harvey, P. Resosudarmo, K. Sinclair, D. Kurz, M. McNair, and R. Saffouri. 1995. Environmental and Economic Costs of Soil Erosion and Conservation Benefits. Science. 267: 1117-1123.

Planning Commission. 1999. Bhutan 2020: A Vision for Peace, Prosperity and Happiness: Planning Commission, Royal Government of Bhutan.

Policy and Planning Division. 2016. Bhutan RNR Statistics Thimphu, Bhutan. Planning and Policy Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Royal Government of Bhutan.

Rolando, J. L., C. Turin, D.A. Ramírez, V. Mares, J. Monerris, and R. Quiroz. 2017. Key ecosystem services and ecological intensification of agriculture in the tropical high-Andean Puna as affected by land-use and climate changes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 236: 221-233.

Royal Society for Protection of Nature, 2016. Bhutan’s Land Cover Maps Updated. http://www.rspnbhutan.org/bhutans-land-cover-maps-updated/

Sandhu, H. S. 2007. Quantifying the economic value of ecosystem services on arable farmland: a bottom-up approach. (Doctoral ), Lincoln University. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/user1/Downloads/sandhu_phd%20(1).pdf

Sandhu, H. S., S.D. Wratten, and R. Cullen. 2007. From poachers to gamekeepers: perceptions of farmers towards ecosystem services on arable farmland. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 5: 39-50.

Sandhu, H. S., S.D. Wratten, and R. Cullen. 2010. The role of supporting ecosystem services in conventional and organic arable farmland. Ecological Complexity. 7: 302-310.

Sandhu, H. S., S.D. Wratten, R. Cullen, and B. Case. 2008. The future of farming: the value of ecosystem services in conventional and organic arable land. An experimental approach. Ecological economics. 64: 835-848.

Santi, C., G. Certini, and L.P. D’Acqui. 2006. Direct determination of organic carbon by dry combustion in soils with carbonates. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 37: 155-162.

Suberi, B., K.R. Tiwari, D. Gurung, R.M. Bajracharya and B.K. Sitaula. 2018. Effect of Harvesting and Non-Harvested Forest Management on Carbon Stocks. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change. 8: 152-164.

Tashi, S., and K. Wangchuk. 2016a. Organic vs. conventional rice production: comparative assessment under farmers’ condition in Bhutan. Organic agriculture. 6: 255-265.

Tashi, S., and K. Wangchuk. 2016b. Prospects of Organic Farming in Bhutan: A SWOT Analysis. Advances in Agriculture. 2016, 1-9.

Thomas, G.V., and M. Shantaram. 1984. In situ cultivation and incorporation of green manure legumes in coconut basins. Plant and soil. 80: 373-380.

Thompson, H. C., and W.C. Kelly. 1985. Vegetable crops, fifth ed. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill publishing company.

Tietenberg, T.,and L. Lewis. 2012. Environmental and natural resource economics, 9th ed. USA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Tittonell, P., 2014. Ecological intensification of agriculture—sustainable by nature. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 8: 53-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2014.08.006

Wangmo, S., and C.B. Iwai. 2018. Performance of Organic Agriculture based on Emergent Properties of Agriculture System in Gasa, Bhutan. Khon Kaen Agriculture Journal. 46: 1202-1210.

Zanner, C., and R.C. Graham. 2005. Deep regolith: exploring the lower reaches of soil. Geoderma. 126: 1-3.