รูปแบบพฤติกรรมความเฉพาะเจาะจงของการกิน ปฏิสัมพันธ์ระหว่างไวรัสและองค์ประกอบของเซลล์เจ้าบ้าน และกลไกการถ่ายทอดไวรัสโรคพืชแบบไหลเวียนชนิดไม่แพร่ขยายและแพร่ขยายโดยแมลงพาหะ

Main Article Content

ฐานัฎ ณ พัทลุง
วิภา ตังคนานนท์

บทคัดย่อ

บทความวิชาการฉบับนี้ได้ทบทวนวรรณกรรมและให้มุมมองที่มุ่งเน้นถึงกลไกการถ่ายทอดไวรัสโรคพืชแบบไหลเวียนโดยแมลงพาหะ ซึ่งสามารถจำแนกออกเป็นสองรูปแบบหลัก ได้แก่ แบบไหลเวียนชนิดไม่แพร่ขยาย และแบบไหลเวียนชนิดแพร่ขยาย กลไกการถ่ายทอดไวรัสแบบไหลเวียนนี้ ไวรัสอาศัยกระบวนการเคลื่อนผ่านเยื่อบุผิวเซลล์ของแมลงในลักษณะของกระบวนการนำเข้าและนำออกจากเซลล์แมลง ไวรัสจะเพิ่มจำนวนและแพร่กระจายไปยังอวัยวะภายในของแมลง โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งอวัยวะในระบบทางเดินอาหาร กระแสโลหิต ช่องว่างกลางลำตัว และต่อมน้ำลายของแมลง ตามลำดับ กลไกนี้เกิดจากปฏิสัมพันธ์ที่จำเพาะระหว่างโปรตีนตัวรับสัญญาณบริเวณพื้นผิวอนุภาคไวรัส และโปรตีนตัวรับสัญญาณบริเวณเซลล์ของอวัยวะภายในแมลงพาหะ ทั้งนี้ไวรัสที่มีการเพิ่มจำนวนในเซลล์แมลงพาหะจะแฝงตัวโดยไม่ก่อให้เกิดการเปลี่ยนแปลงลักษณะทางกายภาพของแมลง แต่มีความคงทนในตัวแมลงได้ในช่วงวันถึงสัปดาห์ และตลอดชั่วอายุขัยของแมลง ดังนั้นการเรียนรู้และการเข้าใจถึงพฤติกรรมตามธรรมชาติ ความเฉพาะเจาะจงของบริเวณปฏิสัมพันธ์ระหว่างไวรัสกับเนื้อเยื่อของแมลงในการเพิ่มจำนวนของไวรัสภายในเซลล์ของแมลง และกลไกการถ่ายทอดไวรัสโรคพืชโดยแมลงพาหะนี้ จะสามารถนำไปประยุกต์ใช้ในการควบคุมและลดความเสียหายที่เกิดขึ้นจากการแพร่ระบาดของไวรัสโรคพืชและแมลงพาหะต่ออุตสาหกรรมการเกษตรของไทยได้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพและเกิดประสิทธิผลอย่างยั่งยืน

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