การจำแนกไส้เดือนฝอยศัตรูแมลงสกุล Heterorhabditis ในประเทศไทยด้วยวิธีทางชีวโมเลกุล และการก่อให้เกิดโรคต่อหนอนกินรังผึ้ง, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

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รัตนาวดี อ่อนวงษ์
นิยาภรณ์ ขวัญเกตุ
อัศเลข รัตนวรรณี
ประกาย ราชณุวงษ์
อธิราช หนูสีดำ

Abstract

ไส้เดือนฝอยศัตรูแมลงในวงศ์ Heterorhabdtidae จัดเป็นชีวภัณฑ์ควบคุมศัตรูพืชที่มีความสำคัญสำหรับใช้กำจัดแมลงศัตรูพืชหลายชนิดทั่วโลก เนื่องจากไส้เดือนฝอยศัตรูแมลงสามารถทำให้แมลงศัตรูพืชตายภายใน 48-72 ชั่วโมง ไส้เดือนฝอยศัตรูแมลงยังมีความปลอดภัยต่อสิ่งมีชีวิตนอกเป้าหมายและสิ่งแวดล้อมอีกด้วย การศึกษานี้ได้จัดจำแนกชนิดของไส้เดือนฝอยศัตรูแมลง Heterorhabditis spp. จำนวน 5 ไอโซเลท ที่พบในประเทศไทยด้วยการวิเคราะห์และเปรียบเทียบลำดับนิวคลีโอไทด์บางส่วนของยีน 28S rRNA กับฐานข้อมูล GeneBank พบว่าไส้เดือนฝอยศัตรูแมลง Heterorhabditis spp. จำนวน 5 ไอโซเลท สามารถจัดจัดจำแนกเป็น Heterorhabditis indica จำนวน 4 ไอโซเลท และ Heterorhabditis baujardi จำนวน 1 ไอโซเลท การศึกษาประสิทธิภาพการก่อให้เกิดโรคต่อหนอนกินรังผึ้ง (Galleria mellonella) วัย 5 ที่อัตรา 12, 25, 50, 100 และ 200 Infective Juveniles (IJs)/หนอน 1 ตัว พบว่าไส้เดือนฝอยศัตรูแมลงทั้งหมดสามารถเข้าทำลายหนอนกินรังผึ้งได้ 80-100% ที่เวลา 72 ชั่วโมง หลังการทดสอบ ซึ่ง H. indica EPNKU64, H. indica EPNKU67, H. indica EPNKU68, H. indica EPNKU82 และ H. baujardi EPNKU75 มีค่าความเข้มข้นที่ทำให้แมลงตาย 90 เปอร์เซ็นต์ (LC90) เท่ากับ 4, 18, 22, 25 และ 165 IJs/หนอน 1 ตัว ตามลำดับ

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