บทบาทของถ่านชีวภาพต่อการกักเก็บคาร์บอนในดินและการลดการปลดปล่อยก๊าซเรือนกระจกในพื้นที่เกษตรกรรม

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ประภา ธารเนตร
พันทิภา โพธิ์พันธุ์
กชกร หล้าพรหม

บทคัดย่อ

ถ่านชีวภาพได้รับความสนใจในการประยุกต์ใช้เป็นวัสดุปรับปรุงดิน เนื่องจากเป็นวัสดุที่มีความพรุนสูงสามารถดูดซับน้ำ และธาตุอาหารได้ดี ถ่านชีวภาพผลิตจากมวลชีวภาพด้วยกระบวนการไพโรไลซิส หรือการเผาภายใต้สภาวะจำกัดออกซิเจน ซึ่งช่วยลดการสูญเสียคาร์บอนในสถานะก๊าซ ทำให้ถ่านชีวภาพมีคาร์บอนเป็นองค์ประกอบสูง และมีความต้านทานต่อการย่อยสลายจากกิจกรรมของจุลินทรีย์ในดิน ด้วยเหตุนี้ ถ่านชีวภาพจึงจัดว่าเป็นวัสดุที่ช่วยกักเก็บคาร์บอน และลดการปลดปล่อยก๊าซเรือนกระจกสู่ชั้นบรรยากาศได้ อย่างไรก็ตาม ถ่านชีวภาพไม่ได้จัดว่าเป็นการกักเก็บคาร์บอนจากชั้นบรรยากาศโดยตรง แต่นำไปสู่การเปลี่ยนแปลงของคาร์บอนที่
กักเก็บไว้ในมวลชีวภาพให้อยู่ในรูปแบบที่เสถียรมากยิ่งขึ้น ซึ่งช่วยในการกักเก็บคาร์บอนในดิน นอกจากนั้น ถ่านชีวภาพช่วยลด
การปลดปล่อยก๊าซไนตรัสออกไซด์ และมีเทนซึ่งเป็นก๊าซเรือนกระจกที่สำคัญ การลดการปลดปล่อยก๊าซเหล่านี้ลงเพียงเล็กน้อยก่อให้เกิดประโยชน์อย่างมากต่อสิ่งแวดล้อม เนื่องจากศักยภาพในการทำให้เกิดภาวะโลกร้อนของก๊าซไนตรัสออกไซด์ และก๊าซมีเทนสูงกว่า
ก๊าซคาร์บอนไดออกไซด์ประมาณ 310 และ 25 เท่า ตามลำดับ ด้วยเหตุนี้ ถ่านชีวภาพจึงจัดเป็นตัวเลือกที่เหมาะสมสำหรับการบรรเทาการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศผ่านการกักเก็บคาร์บอนในระยะยาว และการลดการปลดปล่อยก๊าซเรือนกระจกที่เป็นปัญหาสำคัญของภาวะโลกร้อน

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References

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