Influence of adding various organic residues on some soil properties, growth and yield of Chilli Padi (Capsicum flutescens Linn.) grown under greenhouse conditions

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Mallika Srisutham
Thanyaluck Nontasri
Anan Polthanee

บทคัดย่อ

Most of the soils in northeast Thailand (NET) is sandy in texture. This type of soils contained low organic matter and nutrients, as well as low soil water holding capacity that results in poor crop productivity. Chili is the main vegetable crop cultivation in NET. Several kinds of Thai food included chili as an ingredient. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of various organic residues applications on some soil properties, growth and yield of chili under greenhouse conditions. A completely randomized design with four replications was used for this study. The treatments consisted of three sources of organic residues; (T1) Coconut shell hair, (T2) M. calabura leaves, and (T3) S. saman leaves in comparison with (T4) without organic residues application (control). All various organic residues were incorporated into the soil at a rate of 50 g/pot in a plastic pot with size of 20 cm in diameter and 18 cm in height which filled 3 kg of dry soil. All treatments received chemical fertilizer at same amount. One chili seedling was transplanted into the soil of each pot. Results revealed that all various organic residues application increased soil pH and organic matter, while electrical conductivity (EC) tended to decrease in comparison with control after crop harvest. The application of coconut shell hair into the soil demonstrated the highest soil moisture content during the growing period. Adding all organic residues into the soil remained higher exchangeable K than that of control treatment. Irrespective of crop growth, the maximum root and shoot growth were observed in the M. calabura application treatment in this study. M. calabura or S. Saman residues integrated with chemical fertilizer application increased fresh fruit yield by 40 and 29% over control treatment, respectively.

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References

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Bray II, R.H., and L.T. Kurtz. 1945. Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science. 59: 39-45.

Bojovic, B., and A. Markovic. 2009. Correlation between nitrogen and chlorophyll content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Kragujevac Journal Science. 31: 69-74.

Bot, A., and J. Benites. 2005. The importance of soil organic matter. Key to drought-resistant soil and sustained food and production. FAO Soil Bulletin: 1-95.

Bremner, J.M. 1965. Total nitrogen. In C.A. Black et al. (eds.) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2 Agronomy. 9: 1149-1278.

Brown, S., and M. cotton. 2011. Chemical in soil properties and carbon content following compost application: Results of on-farm sampling. Compost Science and Utilization 19 (2): 87-96.

Casanova, M., E. Tapia, O. Seguel, and O. Salazar. 2016. Direct measurement and prediction of bulk density on alluvial soils of central Chile. Chilean J Agric Res. 76: 105–113.

Land Development Department. YPP. Management of Saline Soil Problems: http://www.ldd.go.th/Web_Soil/salty.htm. Accessed Dec. 14, 2018.

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Hemwong, S.B., B. Toomsan, G. Cadish, V. Limpinuntana, P. Vityakon, and A. Patanothai. 2009. Sugarcane residue management and green legume crop effects on N dynamic, N losses and growth of sugarcane. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 83: 135-151.

Hemalatha, M., V. Thirumurugan, and R. Balasubramanian. 2000. Effect of organic sources of nitrogen on productivity, quality of rice (Oryza sativa) and soil fertility in single crop wetlands. Indian Journal Agronomy. 45: 564-567.

Jones, J., and J. Benton. 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil test and plant analysis. CRC Press. 27-35.

Kunlanit, B., and S. Nasompong. 2017. Fertilizer management on growth and yield of sweet corn. Khon Kaen Agriculture Journal. 45: 133-142.

Mandal, U.K., G. Singh, U.S. Victor, and K.L. Sharma. 2003. Green manuring: it’s effect on soil properties and crop growth under rice-wheat cropping system. European J. Agron. 19: 225-239.

Mugendi, D.N., P.K.R. Nair, J.N. Mugme, M.K. Neil., and P. Woomer. 1999. Alley cropping of maize with calliandra and leucaena in the subhumid highlands of Kenya: Part 1: Soil fertility changes and maize yield. Agroforestry Systems. 46: 39-50.

Murthy, R.K. 1978. A manual on compost and other organic manures. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers. New Delhi, India. 13-119.

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Odlare, M., M. Pell, and K. Svensson. 2008. Changes in chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application. Waste Management 28: 1246-1253.

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Promsakha, S., B. Toomsan, G. Cadisch, E.M. Baggs, P. Vityakon, V. Limpinuntana, S. Jogloy, and A. Patanothai. 2005. Dry season groundnut stover management practices determine nitrogen cycling efficiency and subsequent maize yields. Plant and Soil. 272: 183-199.

Rayment, G.E., and F.R. Higginson. 1992. Australian Laboratory Handbook of Soil and Water. Chemical Methods. Intaka Prcss. 137.

Setyowati, N., Z. Muktamar, B. Suriyanti, and M. Simarmata. 2014. Growth and yield of chili pepper as affected by Weed Based organic compost and nitrogen fertilizer. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology. 4: 84-87.

Sharma, R., Y. Chioti, and U.C. Banerjee. 2001. Production, purification, characterization and applications of lipases. Biotech. Adv. 19: 627-662.

Singh, P.A., R.S. Trippathi, and B.N. Mittra. 2000. Effect of integrated use of organic and chemical sources of nitrogen in rice wheat cropping system. Oryza. 37; 205-208.

Techawangsathien, S. 2006. Chili: Production, management and breeding. Advance agriculture technology & supplies, Bangkok. Thailand. 168.

Thamasupha, P. 2012. Study of suitable materials for growth of marigolds. Research and Development Journal of Buriram Rajabhat University. Thailand. 7: 26-31.

Toomsan, B., V. Limpinuntana, J. Homchan, and S. Saranun. 1993. Nitrogen fixation of groundnut and it’s residual nitrogen benefits to succeeding cassava. In: Proceedings of the 11th Thailand National Groundnut, Meeting, 17-21 May 1993. Published by Department of Agricultural Extension Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. 465-475.

Toomsan, B., J.F. McDonagh, V. Limpinuntana, and K.E. Giller. 1995. Nitrogen fixation of groundnut and soybean and residual nitrogen benefits to rice in farmer’s fields in Northeast Thailand. Plant and Soil. 175: 45-56.

Vityakon, P., V. Limpinuntana, W. Sriboonlue, S. Subhadhira, W. Trilokeat, and S. Prachunkanjana. 2004. Land-use patterns and associated land degradation in undulating terrain of Northeast Thailand. A research report to the National Research Council of Thailand, Khon Kaen University. 223.

Vityakon, P., A. Pudso, S. Budnan, P. Kamonmanit, B. Kulanit, and R. Saenghua. 2013. Enhancing fertility of sandy soils through the use of organic materials: Khon Kaen Agriculture Journal. 41: 1-12.

Walkley, A., and C.A. Black. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 37:29-38.
Angelova, V. R., V. I. Akova, N.S. Artinova, and K. I. Ivanov. 2013. The effect of organic amendments on soil chemical characteristics. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 19: 958-971.

Anggraheni, Y. G. D., F. Nuro, and Y. B. Paradisa. 2019. Effect of organic fertilizer on growth and yield of chili pepper. Proceedings The 3rd SATREPS Conference. November 22, 2018, Indonesia.

Amaliotis, D., I. Therios, and M. Karatissiou. 2004. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on growth, leaf nutrient concentration and photosynthesis in three peach cultivars. ISHS, Acta Horticulture. 449: 36-42.

Bessho, T., and L.C. Bell. 1992. Soil solid and solution phase changes and mung bean response during amelioration of aluminum toxicity with organic matter. Plant and Soil. 140: 183-196.

Black, C.A. 1965. Method of Soil Analysis Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties, American Society of Agronomy Inc.1572.

Bray II, R.H., and L.T. Kurtz. 1945. Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science. 59: 39-45.

Bojovic, B., and A. Markovic. 2009. Correlation between nitrogen and chlorophyll content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Kragujevac Journal Science. 31: 69-74.

Bot, A., and J. Benites. 2005. The importance of soil organic matter. Key to drought-resistant soil and sustained food and production. FAO Soil Bulletin: 1-95.

Bremner, J.M. 1965. Total nitrogen. In C.A. Black et al. (eds.) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2 Agronomy. 9: 1149-1278.

Brown, S., and M. cotton. 2011. Chemical in soil properties and carbon content following compost application: Results of on-farm sampling. Compost Science and Utilization 19 (2): 87-96.

Casanova, M., E. Tapia, O. Seguel, and O. Salazar. 2016. Direct measurement and prediction of bulk density on alluvial soils of central Chile. Chilean J Agric Res. 76: 105–113.

Land Development Department. YPP. Management of Saline Soil Problems: http://www.ldd.go.th/Web_Soil/salty.htm. Accessed Dec. 14, 2018.

Evans, J. R. 1983. Nitrogen and photosynthesis in the flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Physiology. 72: 297-302.

Hayati, E., T. Mahmud, and R. Fazil. 2012. Effect of organic fertilizer types and varieties on growth and yield of chili pepper (Capsicum annum L.). J Floratek.7:173–81.

Hemwong, S.B., B. Toomsan, G. Cadish, V. Limpinuntana, P. Vityakon, and A. Patanothai. 2009. Sugarcane residue management and green legume crop effects on N dynamic, N losses and growth of sugarcane. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 83: 135-151.

Hemalatha, M., V. Thirumurugan, and R. Balasubramanian. 2000. Effect of organic sources of nitrogen on productivity, quality of rice (Oryza sativa) and soil fertility in single crop wetlands. Indian Journal Agronomy. 45: 564-567.

Jones, J., and J. Benton. 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil test and plant analysis. CRC Press. 27-35.

Kunlanit, B., and S. Nasompong. 2017. Fertilizer management on growth and yield of sweet corn. Khon Kaen Agriculture Journal. 45: 133-142.

Mandal, U.K., G. Singh, U.S. Victor, and K.L. Sharma. 2003. Green manuring: it’s effect on soil properties and crop growth under rice-wheat cropping system. European J. Agron. 19: 225-239.

Mugendi, D.N., P.K.R. Nair, J.N. Mugme, M.K. Neil., and P. Woomer. 1999. Alley cropping of maize with calliandra and leucaena in the subhumid highlands of Kenya: Part 1: Soil fertility changes and maize yield. Agroforestry Systems. 46: 39-50.

Murthy, R.K. 1978. A manual on compost and other organic manures. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers. New Delhi, India. 13-119.

Nopphan, C., S. Thanachit, S. Anusontpornperm, and I. Kheoruenrpmne. 2017. Effects of deep placement organic soil conditioners on soil aggregate distribution, carbon sequestration, and yield of cassava in Yasothon soil. Khon Kaen Agriculture Journal. 45: 57-70.

Odlare, M., M. Pell, and K. Svensson. 2008. Changes in chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application. Waste Management 28: 1246-1253.

Petz, B. 1985. Osnovne statisticke metode za matematicare. Sveucilisna naknada liber, Zagreb: 173-222.

Phogat, S.B., I.S. Dahiya, R.S. Hooda, N.K. Sangwan, and Y.P.S. Solanki. 2004. Studies on residual effect of green manuring and farmyard manure for sustained productivity of rice-wheat cropping sequence and on soil health under shallow groundwater table conditions. Annals of Biology 20: 161-165.

Promsakha, S., B. Toomsan, G. Cadisch, E.M. Baggs, P. Vityakon, V. Limpinuntana, S. Jogloy, and A. Patanothai. 2005. Dry season groundnut stover management practices determine nitrogen cycling efficiency and subsequent maize yields. Plant and Soil. 272: 183-199.

Rayment, G.E., and F.R. Higginson. 1992. Australian Laboratory Handbook of Soil and Water. Chemical Methods. Intaka Prcss. 137.

Setyowati, N., Z. Muktamar, B. Suriyanti, and M. Simarmata. 2014. Growth and yield of chili pepper as affected by Weed Based organic compost and nitrogen fertilizer. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology. 4: 84-87.

Sharma, R., Y. Chioti, and U.C. Banerjee. 2001. Production, purification, characterization and applications of lipases. Biotech. Adv. 19: 627-662.

Singh, P.A., R.S. Trippathi, and B.N. Mittra. 2000. Effect of integrated use of organic and chemical sources of nitrogen in rice wheat cropping system. Oryza. 37; 205-208.

Techawangsathien, S. 2006. Chili: Production, management and breeding. Advance agriculture technology & supplies, Bangkok. Thailand. 168.

Thamasupha, P. 2012. Study of suitable materials for growth of marigolds. Research and Development Journal of Buriram Rajabhat University. Thailand. 7: 26-31.

Toomsan, B., V. Limpinuntana, J. Homchan, and S. Saranun. 1993. Nitrogen fixation of groundnut and it’s residual nitrogen benefits to succeeding cassava. In: Proceedings of the 11th Thailand National Groundnut, Meeting, 17-21 May 1993. Published by Department of Agricultural Extension Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. 465-475.

Toomsan, B., J.F. McDonagh, V. Limpinuntana, and K.E. Giller. 1995. Nitrogen fixation of groundnut and soybean and residual nitrogen benefits to rice in farmer’s fields in Northeast Thailand. Plant and Soil. 175: 45-56.

Vityakon, P., V. Limpinuntana, W. Sriboonlue, S. Subhadhira, W. Trilokeat, and S. Prachunkanjana. 2004. Land-use patterns and associated land degradation in undulating terrain of Northeast Thailand. A research report to the National Research Council of Thailand, Khon Kaen University. 223.

Vityakon, P., A. Pudso, S. Budnan, P. Kamonmanit, B. Kulanit, and R. Saenghua. 2013. Enhancing fertility of sandy soils through the use of organic materials: Khon Kaen Agriculture Journal. 41: 1-12.

Walkley, A., and C.A. Black. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 37:29-38.

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